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The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. I. Calibration of the Necessary Local Parameters

Sandage, Allan and Lubin, Lori M. (2001) The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. I. Calibration of the Necessary Local Parameters. Astronomical Journal, 121 (5). pp. 2271-2288. ISSN 0004-6256. doi:10.1086/320394.

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Surface brightness averages are calculated at various metric radii in each galaxy in the sample. The definition of such radii by Petrosian uses ratios of observed surface photometric data. Petrosian radii have important properties for the Tolman test which are reviewed in this paper. The observed surface brightnesses are listed for 118 first-ranked cluster galaxies at Petrosian η radii of 1.0, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.5 mag. The three local diagnostic correlation diagrams are defined and discussed. We review the Tolman test and show that, although recipes from the standard cosmological model that already have the Tolman signal incorporated are required to calculate linear radii and absolute magnitudes from the observed data, the test is nevertheless free from the hermeneutical circularity dilemma occasionally claimed in the literature. The reasons are the observed mean surface brightness (1) is independent of any assumptions of cosmological model, (2) does not depend on the existence of a Tolman signal because it is calculated directly from the data using only angular radii and apparent magnitudes, and (3) can be used to search for the Tolman signal because it carries the bulk of that signal.

Item Type:Article
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Additional Information:© 2001. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2000 November 6; accepted 2001 January 30. L. M. L. was supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HF-01095.01-97A from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. A. S. acknowledges support for publication from NASA grants GO-5427.01-93A and GO-06459.01-95A for work that is related to data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHF-01095.01-97A
NASANAS 5-26555
Subject Keywords:cosmology: observations; galaxies: clusters: general
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170408-144124807
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Official Citation:Allan Sandage and Lori M. Lubin 2001 AJ 121 2271
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:75991
Deposited By: 1Science Import
Deposited On:27 Apr 2017 23:32
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 16:56

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