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The CMS trigger system

Khachatryan, V. and Anderson, D. and Apresyan, A. and Bornheim, A. and Bunn, J. and Chen, Y. and Duarte, J. and Mott, A. and Newman, H. B. and Pena, C. and Pierini, M. and Spiropulu, M. and Vlimant, J. R. and Xie, S. and Zhu, R. Y. and Dubinin, M. (2017) The CMS trigger system. Journal of Instrumentation, 12 (1). Art. No. P01020. ISSN 1748-0221. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170410-145055748

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Abstract

This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/P01020DOIArticle
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/12/01/P01020/metaPublisherArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.02366arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Newman, H. B.0000-0003-0964-1480
Spiropulu, M.0000-0001-8172-7081
Xie, S.0000-0003-2509-5731
Zhu, R. Y.0000-0003-3091-7461
Additional Information:© 2017 CERN 2017 for the benefit of the CMS collaboration, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation and DOI. Received: September 4, 2016; Accepted: January 7, 2017; Published: January 24, 2017. We congratulate our colleagues in the CERN accelerator departments for the excellent performance of the LHC and thank the technical and administrative staffs at CERN and at other CMS institutes for their contributions to the success of the CMS effort. In addition, we gratefully acknowledge the computing centers and personnel of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid for delivering so effectively the computing infrastructure essential to our analyses. Finally, we acknowledge the enduring support for the construction and operation of the LHC and the CMS detector provided by the following funding agencies: the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy and the Austrian Science Fund; the Belgian Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique, and Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek; the Brazilian Funding Agencies (CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ, and FAPESP); the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science; CERN; the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Science and Technology, and National Natural Science Foundation of China; the Colombian Funding Agency (COLCIENCIAS); the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sport, and the Croatian Science Foundation; the Research Promotion Foundation, Cyprus; the Secretariat for Higher Education, Science, Technology and Innovation, Ecuador; the Ministry of Education and Research, Estonian Research Council via IUT23-4 and IUT23-6 and European Regional Development Fund, Estonia; the Academy of Finland, Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, and Helsinki Institute of Physics; the Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules / CNRS, and Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives / CEA, France; the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, and Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren, Germany; the General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Greece; the National Scientific Research Foundation, and National Innovation Office, Hungary; the Department of Atomic Energy and the Department of Science and Technology, India; the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Iran; the Science Foundation, Ireland; the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy; the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, and National Research Foundation (NRF), Republic of Korea; the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences; the Ministry of Education, and University of Malaya (Malaysia); the Mexican Funding Agencies (BUAP, CINVESTAV, CONACYT, LNS, SEP, and UASLP-FAI); the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, New Zealand; the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education and the National Science Centre, Poland; the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal; JINR, Dubna; the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the Federal Agency of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation, Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research; the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia; the Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación and Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, Spain; the Swiss Funding Agencies (ETH Board, ETH Zurich, PSI, SNF, UniZH, Canton Zurich, and SER); the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taipei; the Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology of Thailand, Special Task Force for Activating Research and the National Science and Technology Development Agency of Thailand; the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, and Turkish Atomic Energy Authority; the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, and State Fund for Fundamental Researches, Ukraine; the Science and Technology Facilities Council, U.K.; the US Department of Energy, and the US National Science Foundation. Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie program and the European Research Council and EPLANET (European Union); the Leventis Foundation; the A. P. Sloan Foundation; the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation; the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office; the Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture (FRIA-Belgium); the Agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie (IWT-Belgium); the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS) of the Czech Republic; the Council of Science and Industrial Research, India; the HOMING PLUS program of the Foundation for Polish Science, cofinanced from European Union, Regional Development Fund, the Mobility Plus program of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, the National Science Center (Poland), contracts Harmonia 2014/14/M/ST2/00428, Opus 2013/11/B/ST2/04202, 2014/13/B/ST2/02543 and 2014/15/B/ST2/03998, Sonata-bis 2012/07/E/ST2/01406; the Thalis and Aristeia programs cofinanced by EU-ESF and the Greek NSRF; the National Priorities Research Program by Qatar National Research Fund; the Programa Clarín-COFUND del Principado de Asturias; the Rachadapisek Sompot Fund for Postdoctoral Fellowship, Chulalongkorn University and the Chulalongkorn Academic into Its 2nd Century Project Advancement Project (Thailand); and the Welch Foundation, contract C-1845.
Group:CMS@Caltech
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft, Forschung und Wirtschaft (BMWFW)UNSPECIFIED
FWF Der WissenschaftsfondsUNSPECIFIED
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWO)UNSPECIFIED
Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)UNSPECIFIED
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science (Bulgaria)UNSPECIFIED
CERNUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (China)UNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (COLCIENCIAS)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science, Education and Sport (Croatia)UNSPECIFIED
Croatian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Research Promotion Foundation (Cyprus) UNSPECIFIED
Secretaría de Educación Superior, Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (SENESCYT)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Research (Estonia)UNSPECIFIED
Estonian Research CouncilIUT23-4
Estonian Research CouncilIUT23-6
European Regional Development Fund, EstoniaUNSPECIFIED
Academy of FinlandUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Culture (Finland)UNSPECIFIED
Helsinki Institute of PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (IN2P3)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)UNSPECIFIED
Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF)UNSPECIFIED
General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT)UNSPECIFIED
National Scientific Research Foundation (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
National Innovation Office (Hungary)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Atomic Energy (India)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (Iran)UNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Korea)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Lithuanian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education (Malaysia)UNSPECIFIED
University of MalayaUNSPECIFIED
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP)UNSPECIFIED
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV)UNSPECIFIED
Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)UNSPECIFIED
Laboratorio Nacional de Supercómputo (LNS)UNSPECIFIED
Secretaría de Educación Pública (SEP)UNSPECIFIED
Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí Inicio-Facultad de Ingeniería (UASLP-FAI)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (New Zealand)UNSPECIFIED
Atomic Energy Commission (Pakistan)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT)UNSPECIFIED
Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian FederationUNSPECIFIED
Federal Agency of Atomic Energy of the Russian FederationUNSPECIFIED
Russian Academy of SciencesUNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Serbia)UNSPECIFIED
Secretaría de Estado de Investigación, Desarrollo e InnovaciónUNSPECIFIED
Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010, SpainUNSPECIFIED
ETH BoardUNSPECIFIED
ETH ZurichUNSPECIFIED
Paul Scherrer InstitutUNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Universität ZürichUNSPECIFIED
Canton ZurichUNSPECIFIED
State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (Switzerland)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Thailand Center of Excellence in PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
Special Task Force for Activating Research (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
National Science and Technology Development Agency (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu (TÜBİTAK)UNSPECIFIED
Türkiye Atom Enerjisi Kurumu (TAEK)UNSPECIFIED
National Academy of Sciences of UkraineUNSPECIFIED
State Fund for Fundamental Researches (Ukraine)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Marie Curie FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)UNSPECIFIED
EPLANETUNSPECIFIED
Leventis FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO)UNSPECIFIED
Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l’Industrie et dans l’Agriculture (FRIA-Belgium)UNSPECIFIED
Agentschap voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie (IWT-Belgium)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MEYS) of the Czech RepublicUNSPECIFIED
Council of Science and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Foundation for Polish Science HOMING PLUS programmeUNSPECIFIED
European Union, Regional Development FundUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Harmonia programme2014/14/M/ST2/00428
OPUS programme2013/11/B/ST2/04202
OPUS programme2014/13/B/ST2/02543
OPUS programme2014/15/B/ST2/03998
Sonata-bis programme2012/07/E/ST2/01406
Thalis programmeUNSPECIFIED
Aristeia programmeUNSPECIFIED
European Union European Social FundUNSPECIFIED
Greek National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF)UNSPECIFIED
Qatar National Research Fund National Priorities Research ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Programa Clarín-COFUND del Principado de AsturiasUNSPECIFIED
Rachadapisek Sompot Fund for Postdoctoral FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Chulalongkorn UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Chulalongkorn Academic into Its 2nd Century Project Advancement Project (Thailand)UNSPECIFIED
Welch FoundationC-1845
Subject Keywords:Trigger concepts and systems (hardware and software); Trigger detectors; Data acquisition circuits
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170410-145055748
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170410-145055748
Official Citation:V. Khachatryan et al 2017 JINST 12 P01020
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:76485
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:10 Apr 2017 23:01
Last Modified:10 Apr 2017 23:01

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