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iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova

Goobar, A. and Amanullah, R. and Kulkarni, S. R. and Nugent, P. E. and Johansson, J. and Steidel, C. and Lawrence, D. and Mörtsell, E. and Quimby, R. and Blagorodnova, N. and Brandeker, A. and Cao, Y. and Cooray, A. and Ferretti, R. and Fremling, C. and Hangard, L. and Kasliwal, M. and Kupfer, T. and Lunnan, R. and Masci, F. and Miller, A. A. and Nayyeri, H. and Neill, J. D. and Ofek, E. O. and Papadogiannakis, S. and Petrushevska, T. and Ravi, V. and Sollerman, J. and Sullivan, M. and Taddia, F. and Walters, R. and Wilson, D. M. and Yan, L. and Yaron, O. (2017) iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova. Science, 356 (6335). pp. 291-295. ISSN 0036-8075. doi:10.1126/science.aal2729.

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We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Materials Paper
Goobar, A.0000-0002-4163-4996
Amanullah, R.0000-0002-5559-9351
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Nugent, P. E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Johansson, J.0000-0001-5975-290X
Steidel, C.0000-0002-4834-7260
Quimby, R.0000-0001-9171-5236
Blagorodnova, N.0000-0003-0901-1606
Cao, Y.0000-0002-8036-8491
Cooray, A.0000-0002-3892-0190
Ferretti, R.0000-0001-7814-5814
Fremling, C.0000-0002-4223-103X
Kasliwal, M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kupfer, T.0000-0002-6540-1484
Lunnan, R.0000-0001-9454-4639
Masci, F.0000-0002-8532-9395
Miller, A. A.0000-0001-9515-478X
Nayyeri, H.0000-0001-8242-9983
Neill, J. D.0000-0002-0466-1119
Ofek, E. O.0000-0002-6786-8774
Papadogiannakis, S.0000-0003-0783-3323
Petrushevska, T.0000-0003-4743-1679
Ravi, V.0000-0002-7252-5485
Sollerman, J.0000-0003-1546-6615
Sullivan, M.0000-0001-9053-4820
Taddia, F.0000-0002-2387-6801
Walters, R.0000-0002-1835-6078
Wilson, D. M.0000-0001-6002-423X
Yan, L.0000-0003-1710-9339
Yaron, O.0000-0002-0301-8017
Additional Information:© 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Received for publication 25 October 2016; accepted for publication 24 March 2017. Supported by the Swedish National Science Council and the Swedish National Space Board (A.G., R.A., and E.M.); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant DE-AC02-05CH11231 (P.E.N.); European Research Council grant 615929 (M.S.); NASA (S.R.K.); and NSF grant 1545949. The iPTF Swedish collaboration is funded through a grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. Some of the data presented here were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA grant HST-GO-14862.002. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the data presented here were obtained with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. The Space Telescope Science Data Analysis System (STSDAS) and the command language PyRAF are products of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) for NASA. Part of the processing was carried out off-line using the commercial software package MATLAB and Statistics Toolbox Release 2013a, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA. Photometric data used in this paper are available in tables S1, S2, and S5, spectroscopic data are available at public repository WISeREP (33) ( under the ID “SN 2016geu”; the positions of the SN images used in the lensing model are provided in table S4.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Palomar Transient Factory, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Swedish National Science CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Swedish National Space Board (SNSB)UNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
European Research Council (ERC)615929
Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:6335
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170420-143345464
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Goobar et al., Science 356, 291–295 (2017)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:76786
Deposited By: Melissa Ray
Deposited On:20 Apr 2017 22:04
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 17:02

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