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Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces

Sherrott, Michelle C. and Hon, Philip W. C. and Fountaine, Katherine T. and Garcia, Juan C. and Ponti, Samuel M. and Brar, Victor Watson and Sweatlock, Luke A. and Atwater, Harry A. (2017) Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene-Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces. Nano Letters, 17 (5). pp. 3027-3034. ISSN 1530-6984. doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00359.

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Metasurfaces offer significant potential to control far-field light propagation through the engineering of amplitude, polarization, and phase at an interface. We report here phase modulation of an electronically reconfigurable metasurface and demonstrate its utility for mid-infrared beam steering. Using a gate-tunable graphene-gold resonator geometry, we demonstrate highly tunable reflected phase at multiple wavelengths and show up to 237° phase modulation range at an operating wavelength of 8.50 μm. We observe a smooth monotonic modulation of phase with applied voltage from 0° to 206° at a wavelength of 8.70 μm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrate with antenna array calculations an average beam steering efficiency of 23% for reflected light for angles up to 30° for this range of phases, confirming the suitability of this geometry for reconfigurable mid-infrared beam steering devices. By incorporating all non-idealities of the device into the antenna array calculations including absorption losses which could be mitigated, 1% absolute efficiency is achievable up to 30°.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information Paper
Sherrott, Michelle C.0000-0002-7503-9714
Hon, Philip W. C.0000-0001-7507-4571
Fountaine, Katherine T.0000-0002-0414-8227
Atwater, Harry A.0000-0001-9435-0201
Additional Information:© 2017 American Chemical Society. Received: January 26, 2017; Revised: April 15, 2017; Published: April 26, 2017. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, under Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46405. M.C.S. acknowledges support by the Resnick Sustainability Institute. This research used facilities of the DOE ‘Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion' Energy Frontier Research Center. Author Contributions: M.C.S. and P.W.C.H. are equal contributors. The authors declare no competing financial interest.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-07ER46405
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Metasurface, graphene, phase modulation, field-effect modulation, beam steering, mid-infrared
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170427-095318741
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Experimental Demonstration of >230° Phase Modulation in Gate-Tunable Graphene–Gold Reconfigurable Mid-Infrared Metasurfaces Michelle C. Sherrott, Philip W. C. Hon, Katherine T. Fountaine, Juan C. Garcia, Samuel M. Ponti, Victor W. Brar, Luke A. Sweatlock, and Harry A. Atwater Nano Letters 2017 17 (5), 3027-3034 DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b00359
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:76991
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:27 Apr 2017 17:40
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 17:04

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