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Supernova progenitors, their variability and the Type IIP Supernova ASASSN-16fq in M66

Kochanek, C. S. and Fraser, M. and Adams, S. M. and Sukhbold, T. and Prieto, J. L. and Müller, T. and Bock, G. and Brown, J. S. and Dong, Subo and Holoien, T. W.-S. and Khan, R. and Shappee, B. J. and Stanek, K. Z. (2017) Supernova progenitors, their variability and the Type IIP Supernova ASASSN-16fq in M66. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 467 (3). pp. 3347-3360. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We identify a pre-explosion counterpart to the nearby Type IIP supernova ASASSN-16fq (SN 2016cok) in archival Hubble Space Telescope data. The source appears to be a blend of several stars that prevents obtaining accurate photometry. However, with reasonable assumptions about the stellar temperature and extinction, the progenitor almost certainly had an initial mass M* ≲ 17 M⊙, and was most likely in the mass range of M* = 8–12 M⊙. Observations once ASASSN-16fq has faded will have no difficulty accurately determining the properties of the progenitor. In 8 yr of Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) data, no significant progenitor variability is detected to rms limits of roughly 0.03 mag. Of the six nearby supernova (SN) with constraints on the low-level variability, SN 1987A, SN 1993J, SN 2008cn, SN 2011dh, SN 2013ej and ASASSN-16fq, only the slowly fading progenitor of SN 2011dh showed clear evidence of variability. Excluding SN 1987A, the 90 per cent confidence limit implied by these sources on the number of outbursts over the last decade before the SN that last longer than 0.1 yr (full width at half-maximum) and are brighter than MR < −8 mag is approximately Nout ≲ 3. Our continuing LBT monitoring programme will steadily improve constraints on pre-SN progenitor variability at amplitudes far lower than achievable by SN surveys.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Kochanek, C. S.0000-0001-6017-2961
Fraser, M.0000-0003-2191-1674
Adams, S. M.0000-0001-5855-5939
Sukhbold, T.0000-0002-1728-1561
Prieto, J. L.0000-0003-1072-2712
Brown, J. S.0000-0002-1885-6419
Holoien, T. W.-S.0000-0001-9206-3460
Shappee, B. J.0000-0003-4631-1149
Additional Information:© 2017 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2017 January 31. Received 2017 January 22; in original form 2016 August 31. Published: 24 February 2017. We thank A. Dolphin for his advice regarding dolphot. CSK, KZS, JSB, SMA and TWSH are supported by NSF grants AST-1515876 and AST-1515927. BJS is supported by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HF-51348.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. TW-SH is supported by the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellowship, grant number DE-FG02- 97ER25308. TS is partly supported by NSF grant PHY-1404311 to J. Beacom. This work was partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360. Support for JLP is provided in part by FONDECYT through the grant 1151445 and by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism’s Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. SD is supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program ‘The Emergence of Cosmological Structures’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB09000000) and NSFC project 11573003. Some of the observations were carried out using the LBT at Mt Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max–Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam and Heidelberg University; the Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA, and in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA HST obtained at the Space Telescope Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Some observations were obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF/ESA) and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre (CADC/NRC/CSA).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02- 97ER25308
European Research Council (ERC)320360
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1151445
Iniciativa Científica Milenio del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y TurismoIC120009
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB09000000
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573003
Subject Keywords:stars: massive – supernovae: general – supernovae: individual: SN 2016cok – galaxies: individual: M 66
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170428-141639538
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:C. S. Kochanek, M. Fraser, S. M. Adams, T. Sukhbold, J. L. Prieto, T. Müller, G. Bock, J. S. Brown, Subo Dong, T. W.-S. Holoien, R. Khan, B. J. Shappee, K. Z. Stanek; Supernova progenitors, their variability and the Type IIP Supernova ASASSN-16fq in M66. Mon Not R Astron Soc 2017; 467 (3): 3347-3360. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stx291
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:77065
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:28 Apr 2017 23:50
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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