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Low activity microstates during sleep

Miyawaki, Hiroyuki and Billeh, Yazan N. and Diba, Kamran (2017) Low activity microstates during sleep. Sleep, 40 (6). Art. No. zsx066. ISSN 0161-8105. PMCID PMC5804987.

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Study Objectives: To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, which we call “LOW” activity sleep. Methods: We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (260–360 g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle as well as data from other brain regions obtained from Results: LOW states lasted longer than OFF/DOWN states and were distinguished by a subset of “LOW-active” cells. LOW activity sleep was preceded and followed by increased sharp-wave ripple activity. We also observed decreased slow-wave activity and sleep spindles in the hippocampal LFP and neocortical EEG upon LOW onset, with a partial rebound immediately after LOW. LOW states demonstrated activity patterns consistent with sleep but frequently transitioned into microarousals and showed EMG and LFP differences from small-amplitude irregular activity during quiet waking. Their likelihood decreased within individual non-REM epochs yet increased over the course of sleep. By analyzing data from the entorhinal cortex of rats,1 as well as the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the postsubiculum, and the anterior thalamus of mice,2 obtained from, we confirmed that LOW states corresponded to markedly diminished activity simultaneously in all of these regions. Conclusions: We propose that LOW states are an important microstate within non-REM sleep that provide respite from high-activity sleep and may serve a restorative function.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle Paper
Billeh, Yazan N.0000-0001-5200-4992
Additional Information:© 2017 Sleep Research Society. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society]. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Published: 18 April 2017. We are grateful to Adrien Peyrache, Kenji Mizuseki, and for making their data readily available, and Christof Koch, Markus Schmidt, and Brendon O. Watson for valuable comments. This work was partially supported by National Institutes of Health [grant no. R01MH109170]. HM performed research. YNB performed analyses identifying LOW-active cells. HM and KD designed research and wrote the manuscript, with comments from YNB. Disclosure Statement: None declared. A previous version of this paper was published in BioRXiv. This work was performed at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Slow Wave Sleep, EEG Spectral Analysis, Microarousals, Infra-slow, SIA, NREM Sleep
Issue or Number:6
PubMed Central ID:PMC5804987
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170504-084450190
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Official Citation:Hiroyuki Miyawaki, Yazan N. Billeh, Kamran Diba; Low activity microstates during sleep. Sleep 2017 zsx066. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsx066
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:77186
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:04 May 2017 15:57
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 17:54

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