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ALMA observations of atomic carbon in z ∼ 4 dusty star-forming galaxies

Bothwell, M. S. and Aguirre, J. E. and Aravena, M. and Béthermin, M. and Bisbas, T. G. and Chapman, S. C. and de Breuck, C. and Gonzalez, A. H. and Greve, T. R. and Hezaveh, Y. and Ma, J. and Malkan, M. and Marrone, D. P. and Murphy, E. J. and Spilker, J. S. and Strandet, M. and Vieira, J. D. and Weiß, A. (2017) ALMA observations of atomic carbon in z ∼ 4 dusty star-forming galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 466 (3). pp. 2825-2841. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stw3270.

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We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array [C i](1 − 0) (rest frequency 492 GHz) observations for a sample of 13 strongly lensed dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) originally discovered at 1.4 mm in a blank-field survey by the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We compare these new data with available [Ci] observations from the literature, allowing a study of the interstellar medium (ISM) properties of ∼30 extreme DSFGs spanning a redshift range 2 < z < 5. Using the [Ci] line as a tracer of the molecular ISM, we find a mean molecular gas mass for SPT-DSFGs of 6.6 × 10^(10) M_⊙. This is in tension with gas masses derived via low-J^(12)CO and dust masses; bringing the estimates into accordance requires either (a) an elevated CO-to-H2 conversion factor for our sample of αCO ∼ 2.5 and a gas-to-dust ratio ∼200, or (b) an high carbon abundance X_(CI) ∼ 7 × 10^(−5). Using observations of a range of additional atomic and molecular lines (including [Ci], [Cii]and multiple transitions of CO), we use a modern photodissociation region code (3d-pdr) to assess the physical conditions (including the density, UV radiation field strength and gas temperature) within the ISM of the DSFGs in our sample. We find that the ISM within our DSFGs is characterized by dense gas permeated by strong UV fields. We note that previous efforts to characterize photodissociation region regions in DSFGs may have significantly under-estimated the density of the ISM. Combined, our analysis suggests that the ISM of extreme dusty starbursts at high redshift consists of dense, carbon-rich gas not directly comparable to the ISM of starbursts in the local Universe.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Aguirre, J. E.0000-0002-4810-666X
Aravena, M.0000-0002-6290-3198
Béthermin, M.0000-0002-3915-2015
de Breuck, C.0000-0002-6637-3315
Gonzalez, A. H.0000-0002-0933-8601
Malkan, M.0000-0001-6919-1237
Marrone, D. P.0000-0002-2367-1080
Murphy, E. J.0000-0001-7089-7325
Weiß, A.0000-0003-4678-3939
Additional Information:© 2016 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2016 December 13. Received 2016 December 13; in original form 2016 September 28. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA #2011.0.00957.S, #2011.0.00958.S, #2012.1.00844.S and #2012.1.00994.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. This work has made use of the NASA ADS. The SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097, with partial support through PHY-1125897, the Kavli Foundation and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. MSB is supported by STFC grants ST/M001172/1 and ST/K003119/1. We acknowledge support from the US National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1312950. MA acknowledges partial support from FONDECYT through grant 1140099.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF 947
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001172/1
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/K003119/1
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1140099
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: strong, galaxies: evolution, galaxies: formation, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170505-083153828
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:M. S. Bothwell, J. E. Aguirre, M. Aravena, M. Bethermin, T. G. Bisbas, S. C. Chapman, C. De Breuck, A. H. Gonzalez, T. R. Greve, Y. Hezaveh, J. Ma, M. Malkan, D. P. Marrone, E. J. Murphy, J. S. Spilker, M. Strandet, J. D. Vieira, A. Weiß; ALMA observations of atomic carbon in z ∼ 4 dusty star-forming galaxies. Mon Not R Astron Soc 2017; 466 (3): 2825-2841. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stw3270
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:77208
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:05 May 2017 16:14
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 17:29

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