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Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

Luo, Yingdi and Ampuero, Jean-Paul and Miyakoshi, Ken and Irikura, Kojiro (2017) Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 174 (9). pp. 3331-3342. ISSN 0033-4553 . http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170509-135627436

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Abstract

Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment (M_0) and rupture area (A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M_0–A^2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M_0–A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1467-4DOIArticle
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00024-017-1467-4PublisherArticle
http://rdcu.be/rYnbPublisherFree ReadCube access
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Luo, Yingdi0000-0002-1165-6107
Ampuero, Jean-Paul0000-0002-4827-7987
Additional Information:© 2017 Springer International Publishing. Received: 01 August 2016; Revised: 13 December 2016; Accepted: 02 January 2017; First Online: 25 January 2017. This study was based on the 2015 research project ‘Improvement for uncertainty of strong ground motion prediction’ by the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), Japan.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Nuclear Regulation Authority (Japan)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Earthquake scaling relations; surface rupture effects; earthquake cycle model; rate-and-state friction; analytical dislocation model; numerical crack model
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170509-135627436
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170509-135627436
Official Citation:Luo, Y., Ampuero, JP., Miyakoshi, K. et al. Pure Appl. Geophys. (2017) 174: 3331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00024-017-1467-4
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:77310
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 May 2017 23:13
Last Modified:26 Oct 2017 19:02

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