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197 Candidates and 104 Validated Planets in K2's First Five Fields

Crossfield, Ian J. M. and Ciardi, David R. and Petigura, Erik A. and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Howard, Andrew W. and Beichman, Charles A. and Dressing, Courtney D. and Christiansen, Jessie L. and Riddle, Reed and Benneke, Björn and Knutson, Heather and Fulton, Benjamin J. (2016) 197 Candidates and 104 Validated Planets in K2's First Five Fields. Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, 226 (1). Art. No. 7. ISSN 0067-0049.

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We present 197 planet candidates discovered using data from the first year of the NASA K2 mission (Campaigns 0–4), along with the results of an intensive program of photometric analyses, stellar spectroscopy, high-resolution imaging, and statistical validation. We distill these candidates into sets of 104 validated planets (57 in multi-planet systems), 30 false positives, and 63 remaining candidates. Our validated systems span a range of properties, with median values of R P = 2.3 R_⊕, P = 8.6 days, T_(eff) = 5300 K, and Kp = 12.7 mag. Stellar spectroscopy provides precise stellar and planetary parameters for most of these systems. We show that K2 has increased by 30% the number of small planets known to orbit moderately bright stars (1–4 R_⊕, Kp = 9–13 mag). Of particular interest are 76 planets smaller than 2 R_⊕, 15 orbiting stars brighter than Kp = 11.5 mag, 5 receiving Earth-like irradiation levels, and several multi-planet systems—including 4 planets orbiting the M dwarf K2–72 near mean-motion resonances. By quantifying the likelihood that each candidate is a planet we demonstrate that our candidate sample has an overall false positive rate of 15%–30%, with rates substantially lower for small candidates (<2R_⊕) and larger for candidates with radii >8R_⊕ and/or with P < 3 days. Extrapolation of the current planetary yield suggests that K2 will discover between 500 and 1000 planets in its planned four-year mission, assuming sufficient follow-up resources are available. Efficient observing and analysis, together with an organized and coherent follow-up strategy, are essential for maximizing the efficacy of planet-validation efforts for K2, TESS, and future large-scale surveys.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ciardi, David R.0000-0002-5741-3047
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Dressing, Courtney D.0000-0001-8189-0233
Christiansen, Jessie L.0000-0002-8035-4778
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Benneke, Björn0000-0001-5578-1498
Knutson, Heather0000-0002-0822-3095
Fulton, Benjamin J.0000-0003-3504-5316
Additional Information:© 2016. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 April 1. Accepted 2016 June 20. Published 2016 September 2. This paper includes data collected by the K2 mission. Funding for the K2 mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission directorate. This work was performed in part under contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. E.A.P. acknowledges support by NASA through a Hubble Fellowship grant awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. The Research of JES was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Ames Research Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. B.J.F. was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. 2014184874. Any opinion, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. A.J. acknowledges support from FONDECYT project 1130857, BASAL CATA PFB-06, and from the Ministry for the Economy, Development, and Tourism's Programa Iniciativa Científica Milenio through grant IC 120009, awarded to the Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS). Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory (which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, UC, and NASA) and at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF, operated by UH under NASA contract NNH14CK55B). The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. C.B. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The Robo-AO system was developed by the collaborating partner institutions, the California Institute of Technology and the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, and with the support of the National Science Foundation under grant Nos. AST-0906060, AST-0960343, and AST-1207891, the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and by a gift from Samuel Oschin. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through the contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen's University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, the Space Telescope Science Institute, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE). Facilities: APF (Levy) - , Kepler - , K2 - , Keck:I (HIRES) - , Keck:II (NIRC2) - , IRTF (SpeX) - , Palomar:Hale (PALM-3000/PHARO) - , Palomar:1.5 m (Robo-AO) - , Gemini:North (DSSI) - , Gemini:South (NIRI) - , LBT (LMIRCam). -
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASANAS 5-26555
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research Fellowship2014184874
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1130857
Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y TurismoIC 120009
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Institute for AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
University of HawaiiUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck Society UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck Institute for AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Johns Hopkins UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Durham UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
Queen's University BelfastUNSPECIFIED
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network IncorporatedUNSPECIFIED
National Central University of TaiwanUNSPECIFIED
Space Telescope Science InstituteUNSPECIFIED
University of Maryland UNSPECIFIED
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:catalogs; planets and satellites: fundamental parameters; planets and satellites: general; techniques: high angular resolution; techniques: photometric; techniques: spectroscopic
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170518-134907890
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ian J. M. Crossfield et al 2016 ApJS 226 7
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:77587
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:18 May 2017 21:54
Last Modified:15 Aug 2018 21:44

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