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A Conserved Role for VEGF Signaling in Specification of Homologous Mesenchymal Cell Types Positioned at Spatially Distinct Developmental Addresses in Early Development of Sea Urchins

Erkenbrack, Eric M. and Petsios, Elizabeth (2017) A Conserved Role for VEGF Signaling in Specification of Homologous Mesenchymal Cell Types Positioned at Spatially Distinct Developmental Addresses in Early Development of Sea Urchins. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B, 328 (5). pp. 423-432. ISSN 1552-5007. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170530-085223342

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Abstract

Comparative studies of early development in echinoderms are revealing the tempo and mode of alterations to developmental gene regulatory networks and to the cell types they specify. In euechinoid sea urchins, skeletogenic mesenchyme (SM) ingresses prior to gastrulation at the vegetal pole and aligns into a ring-like array with two bilateral pockets of cells, the sites where spiculogenesis will later occur. In cidaroid sea urchins, the anciently diverged sister clade to euechinoid sea urchins, a homologous SM cell type ingresses later in development, after gastrulation has commenced, and consequently at a distinct developmental address. Thus, a heterochronic shift of ingression of the SM cell type occurred in one of the echinoid lineages. In euechinoids, specification and migration of SM are facilitated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. We describe spatiotemporal expression of vegf and vegfr and experimental manipulations targeting VEGF signaling in the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatially, vegf and vegfr mRNA localizes similarly as in euechinoids, suggesting conserved deployment in echinoids despite their spatially distinct development addresses of ingression. Inhibition of VEGF signaling in E. tribuloides suggests its role in SM specification is conserved in echinoids. Temporal discrepancies between the onset of vegf expression and SM ingression likely result in previous observations of SM “random wandering” behavior. Our results indicate that, although the SM cell type in echinoids ingresses into distinct developmental landscapes, it retains a signaling mechanism that restricts their spatial localization to a conserved developmental address where spiculogenesis later occurs.


Item Type:Article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.22743DOIArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.b.22743/abstractPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Erkenbrack, Eric M.0000-0001-9375-3279
Additional Information:© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Issue online: 28 June 2017; Version of record online: 23 May 2017; Manuscript Accepted: 5 April 2017; Manuscript Revised: 4 February 2017; Manuscript Received: 14 December 2016. Grant sponsor: NSF CREATIV; Grant number: IOS1240626.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFIOS-1240626
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170530-085223342
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170530-085223342
Official Citation:Erkenbrack EM, Petsios E. 2017. A conserved role for VEGF signaling in specification of homologous mesenchymal cell types positioned at spatially distinct developmental addresses in early development of sea urchins. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 328B:423–432
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:77820
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 May 2017 17:07
Last Modified:03 Oct 2019 18:02

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