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Biomolecular MRI reporters: Evolution of new mechanisms

Mukherjee, Arnab and Davis, Hunter C. and Ramesh, Pradeep and Lu, George J. and Shapiro, Mikhail G. (2017) Biomolecular MRI reporters: Evolution of new mechanisms. Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, 102-103 . pp. 32-42. ISSN 0079-6565. PMCID PMC5726449. doi:10.1016/j.pnmrs.2017.05.002.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful technique for observing the function of specific cells and molecules inside living organisms. However, compared to optical microscopy, in which fluorescent protein reporters are available to visualize hundreds of cellular functions ranging from gene expression and chemical signaling to biomechanics, to date relatively few such reporters are available for MRI. Efforts to develop MRI-detectable biomolecules have mainly focused on proteins transporting paramagnetic metals for T_1 and T_2 relaxation enhancement or containing large numbers of exchangeable protons for chemical exchange saturation transfer. While these pioneering developments established several key uses of biomolecular MRI, such as imaging of gene expression and functional biosensing, they also revealed that low molecular sensitivity poses a major challenge for broader adoption in biology and medicine. Recently, new classes of biomolecular reporters have been developed based on alternative contrast mechanisms, including enhancement of spin diffusivity, interactions with hyperpolarized nuclei, and modulation of blood flow. These novel reporters promise to improve sensitivity and enable new forms of multiplexed and functional imaging.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Mukherjee, Arnab0000-0002-6783-8225
Davis, Hunter C.0000-0003-1655-692X
Lu, George J.0000-0002-4689-9686
Shapiro, Mikhail G.0000-0002-0291-4215
Additional Information:© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Received 1 May 2017, Accepted 28 May 2017, Available online 3 June 2017. Work in the Shapiro laboratory related to this article is supported by the Heritage Medical Research Institute, the Burroughs Wellcome Career Award at the Scientific Interface, the Pew Scholarship in the Biomedical Sciences, the Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering, the Dana Foundation, the Human Frontier Science Program, the W.M. Keck Foundation and the National Institutes of Health (U54CA199090A). AM was supported by the James G. Boswell Postdoctoral Fellowship. PR was supported by a NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and the NIH Biotechnology Leaders Program.
Group:Heritage Medical Research Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Heritage Medical Research InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Burroughs Wellcome FundUNSPECIFIED
Pew Charitable TrustUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Dana FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Human Frontier Science ProgramUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
James G. Boswell FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Contrast agents; Biomolecular reporters; Diffusion; Hyperpolarization
PubMed Central ID:PMC5726449
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170619-073109351
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Arnab Mukherjee, Hunter C. Davis, Pradeep Ramesh, George J. Lu, Mikhail G. Shapiro, Biomolecular MRI reporters: Evolution of new mechanisms, Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Volumes 102–103, November 2017, Pages 32-42, ISSN 0079-6565,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:78314
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Jun 2017 16:25
Last Modified:25 Mar 2022 23:13

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