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The Density of Mid-sized Kuiper Belt Objects from ALMA Thermal Observations

Brown, Michael E. and Butler, Bryan J. (2017) The Density of Mid-sized Kuiper Belt Objects from ALMA Thermal Observations. Astronomical Journal, 154 (1). Art. No. 19. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa6346.

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The densities of mid-sized Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) are a key constraint in understanding the assembly of objects in the outer solar system. These objects are critical for understanding the currently unexplained transition from the smallest KBOs with densities lower than that of water, to the largest objects with significant rock content. Mapping this transition is made difficult by the uncertainties in the diameters of these objects, which maps into an even larger uncertainty in volume and thus density. The substantial collecting area of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array allows significantly more precise measurements of thermal emission from outer solar system objects and could potentially greatly improve the density measurements. Here we use new thermal observations of four objects with satellites to explore the improvements possible with millimeter data. We find that effects due to effective emissivity at millimeter wavelengths make it difficult to use the millimeter data directly to find diameters and thus volumes for these bodies. In addition, we find that when including the effects of model uncertainty, the true uncertainties on the sizes of outer solar system objects measured with radiometry are likely larger than those previously published. Substantial improvement in object sizes will likely require precise occultation measurements.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Brown, Michael E.0000-0002-8255-0545
Butler, Bryan J.0000-0002-5344-820X
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2016 November 15; revised 2017 February 3; accepted 2017 February 20; published 2017 June 21.
Group:Astronomy Department
Subject Keywords:Kuiper belt: general – planetary systems
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170621-082011699
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Michael E. Brown and Bryan J. Butler 2017 AJ 154 19
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:78397
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Jun 2017 15:53
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 17:39

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