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The California-Kepler Survey. I. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 1305 Stars Hosting Kepler Transiting Planets

Petigura, Erik A. and Howard, Andrew W. and Marcy, Geoffrey W. and Johnson, John Asher and Isaacson, Howard and Cargile, Phillip A. and Hebb, Leslie and Fulton, Benjamin J. and Weiss, Lauren M. and Morton, Timothy D. and Winn, Joshua N. and Rogers, Leslie A. and Sinukoff, Evan and Hirsch, Lea A. and Crossfield, Ian J. M. (2017) The California-Kepler Survey. I. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 1305 Stars Hosting Kepler Transiting Planets. Astronomical Journal, 154 (3). Art. No. 107. ISSN 1538-3881.

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The California-Kepler Survey (CKS) is an observational program to improve our knowledge of the properties of stars found to host transiting planets by NASA's Kepler Mission. The improvement stems from new high-resolution optical spectra obtained using HIRES at the W. M. Keck Observatory. The CKS stellar sample comprises 1305 stars classified as Kepler Objects of Interest, hosting a total of 2075 transiting planets. The primary sample is magnitude-limited (K_p < 14.2) and contains 960 stars with 1385 planets. The sample was extended to include some fainter stars that host multiple planets, ultra short period planets, or habitable zone planets. The spectroscopic parameters were determined with two different codes, one based on template matching and the other on direct spectral synthesis using radiative transfer. We demonstrate a precision of 60 K in T_(eff), 0.10 dex in surface gravity, 0.04 dex in [Fe/H], and 1.0 km s^(-1) in projected rotational velocity. In this paper we describe the CKS project and present a uniform catalog of spectroscopic parameters. Subsequent papers in this series present catalogs of derived stellar properties such as mass, radius and age; revised planet properties; and statistical explorations of the ensemble. CKS is the largest survey to determine the properties of Kepler stars using a uniform set of high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra. The HIRES spectra are available to the community for independent analyses.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Petigura, Erik A.0000-0003-0967-2893
Howard, Andrew W.0000-0001-8638-0320
Marcy, Geoffrey W.0000-0002-2909-0113
Johnson, John Asher0000-0001-9808-7172
Isaacson, Howard0000-0002-0531-1073
Hebb, Leslie0000-0003-1263-8637
Fulton, Benjamin J.0000-0003-3504-5316
Weiss, Lauren M.0000-0002-3725-3058
Morton, Timothy D.0000-0002-8537-5711
Winn, Joshua N.0000-0002-4265-047X
Rogers, Leslie A.0000-0003-0638-3455
Sinukoff, Evan0000-0002-5658-0601
Hirsch, Lea A.0000-0001-8058-7443
Crossfield, Ian J. M.0000-0002-1835-1891
Additional Information:© 2017 American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 March 30; revised 2017 June 13; accepted 2017 June 14; published 2017 August 24. The CKS project was conceived, planned, and initiated by AWH, GWM, JAJ, HTI, and TDM. AWH, GWM, JAJ acquired Keck telescope time to conduct the magnitude-limited survey. Keck time for the other stellar samples was acquired by JNW, LAR, and GWM. The observations were coordinated by HTI and AWH and carried out by AWH, HTI, GWM, JAJ, TDM, BJF, LMW, EAP, ES, and LAH. AWH secured CKS project funding. SpecMatch was developed and run by EAP and SME@XSEDE was developed and run by LH and PAC. Downstream data products were developed by EAP, HTI, and BJF. Results from the two pipelines were consolidated and the integrity of the parameters were verified by AWH, HTI, EAP, GWM, with assistance from BJF, LMW, ES, LAH, and IJMC. This manuscript was largely written by AWH and EAP with significant assistance from HTI, JNW, and GWM. We thank Jason Rowe, Dan Huber, Jeff Valenti, Natalie Batalha, and David Ciardi for helpful conversations and Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda for his work on the Ultra-Short Period planet sample. We thank the many observers who contributed to the measurements reported here. PAC and LH thank Jeff Valenti, and Eric Stempels for their extensive help in running SME and developing the SME implementation presented in this paper. We gratefully acknowledge the efforts and dedication of the Keck Observatory staff, especially Randy Campbell, Scott Dahm, Greg Doppmann, Marc Kassis, Jim Lyke, Hien Tran, Josh Walawender, Greg Wirth for support of HIRES and of remote observing. Most of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. We are grateful to the time assignment committees of the University of Hawaii, the University of California, the California Institute of Technology, and NASA for their generous allocations of observing time that enabled this large project. Kepler was competitively selected as the tenth NASA Discovery mission. Funding for this mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission Directorate. We thank the Kepler Science Office, the Science Operations Center, Threshold Crossing Event Review Team (TCERT), and the Follow-up Observations Program (FOP) Working Group for their work on all steps in the planet discovery process ranging from selecting target stars and pointing the Kepler telescope to developing and running the photometric pipeline to curating and refining the catalogs of Kepler planets. We specifically thank Natalie Batalha, William Borucki, and David Ciardi in particular, for selecting stars in the Habitable Zone sample. EAP acknowledges support from Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51365.001-A awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. for NASA under contract NAS 5-26555. AWH acknowledges NASA grant NNX12AJ23G. TDM acknowledges NASA grant NNX14AE11G. PAC acknowledges National Science Foundation grant AST-1109612. LH acknowledges National Science Foundation grant AST-1009810. LMW acknowledges support from Gloria and Ken Levy and from the Trottier Family. ES is supported by a post-graduate scholarship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. IJMC performed his work under contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. Work by JNW was partly supported by a NASA Keck PI Data Award, administered by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. This work made use of the SIMBAD database (operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France), NASA’s Astrophysics Data System Bibliographic Services, and the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. LAR gratefully acknowledges support provided by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant #HF-51313 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. This work was performed in part under contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. Finally, the authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Facilities: Keck:I (HIRES), Kepler.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51365.001-A
NASANAS 5-26555
Gloria and Ken LevyUNSPECIFIED
Trottier Family FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
NASA Hubble FellowshipHF-51313
Subject Keywords:binaries: spectroscopic – catalogs – stars: abundances – stars: fundamental parameters
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170621-091730611
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Erik A. Petigura et al 2017 AJ 154 107
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:78400
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Jun 2017 17:36
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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