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Gaia16apd – a link between fast and slowly declining type I superluminous supernovae

Kangas, T. and Blagorodnova, N. and Mattila, S. and Lundqvist, P. and Fraser, M. and Burgaz, U. and Cappellaro, E. and Carrasco Martínez, J. M. and Elias-Rosa, N. and Hardy, L. K. and Harmanen, J. and Hsiao, E. Y. and Isern, J. and Kankare, E. and Kołaczkowski, Z. and Nielsen, M. B. and Reynolds, T. M. and Rhodes, L. and Somero, A. and Stritzinger, M. D. and Wyrzykowski, Ł. (2017) Gaia16apd – a link between fast and slowly declining type I superluminous supernovae. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 469 (1). pp. 1246-1258. ISSN 0035-8711.

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We present ultraviolet (UV), optical and infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the type Ic superluminous supernova (SLSN) Gaia16apd (=SN 2016eay), covering its evolution from 26 d before the g-band peak to 234.1 d after the peak. Gaia16apd was followed as a part of the NOT Unbiased Transient Survey (NUTS). It is one of the closest SLSNe known (z = 0.102 ± 0.001), with detailed optical and UV observations covering the peak. Gaia16apd is a spectroscopically typical type Ic SLSN, exhibiting the characteristic blue early spectra with O II absorption, and reaches a peak M_g = −21.8 ± 0.1 mag. However, photometrically it exhibits an evolution intermediate between the fast and slowly declining type Ic SLSNe, with an early evolution closer to the fast-declining events. Together with LSQ12dlf, another SLSN with similar properties, it demonstrates a possible continuum between fast and slowly declining events. It is unusually UV-bright even for an SLSN, reaching a non-K-corrected Muvm_2 ≃ −23.3 mag, the only other type Ic SLSN with similar UV brightness being SN 2010gx. Assuming that Gaia16apd was powered by magnetar spin-down, we derive a period of P = 1.9 ± 0.2 ms and a magnetic field of B = 1.9 ± 0.2 × 10^(14) G for the magnetar. The estimated ejecta mass is between 8 and 16 M⊙, and the kinetic energy between 1.3 and 2.5 × 10^(52) erg, depending on opacity and assuming that the entire ejecta is swept up into a thin shell. Despite the early photometric differences, the spectra at late times are similar to slowly declining type Ic SLSNe, implying that the two subclasses originate from similar progenitors.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Blagorodnova, N.0000-0003-0901-1606
Mattila, S.0000-0001-7497-2994
Lundqvist, P.0000-0002-3664-8082
Fraser, M.0000-0003-2191-1674
Cappellaro, E.0000-0001-5008-8619
Elias-Rosa, N.0000-0002-1381-9125
Kankare, E.0000-0001-8257-3512
Stritzinger, M. D.0000-0002-5571-1833
Additional Information:© 2017 The Authors. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2017 March 31. Received 2017 March 7; in original form 2016 November 30. Published: 04 April 2017. We thank the anonymous referee for comments that helped improve this paper considerably. We thank Subo Dong, Cosimo Inserra, Christa Gall, Peter Brown and Andrea Pastorello for their suggestions. We acknowledge ESA Gaia, DPAC and the Photometric Science Alerts Team ( The pt5m and TJO preliminary photometric calibrations were obtained using the Cambridge Photometric Calibration Server (CPCS), designed and maintained by Sergey Koposov and Lukasz Wyrzykowski. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association, and with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The data presented here were obtained in part with ALFOSC, which is provided by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. We also thank support astronomers working in Telescopi Joan Oró at Montsec Observatory (OAdM) for their help to run the needed sequences on time for our Gaia alert programme. TK acknowledges financial support by the Emil Aaltonen Foundation. NB was supported by the GROWTH project funded by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1545949. JH acknowledges support by the Finnish Cultural Foundation. MF acknowledges the support of a Royal Society – Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. NER acknowledges financial support by the 1994 PRIN-INAF 2014 (project ‘Transient Universe: unveiling new types of stellar explosions with PESSTO’) and by MIUR PRIN 2010-2011, ‘The dark Universe and the cosmic evolution of baryons: from current surveys to Euclid’. EYH acknowledges the support provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-1008343 and AST-1613472. MDS is funded by generous support provided by the Danish Agency for Science and Technology and Innovation realized through a Sapere Aude Level 2 grant and a grant from the Villum Foundation. This work was supported by the MINECO (Spanish Ministry of Economy) – FEDER through grants ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R and ESP2014-55996-C2-1-R and MDM-2014-0369 of ICCUB (Unidad de Excelencia ‘María de Maeztu’). NUTS is funded in part by the IDA (Instrument Centre for Danish Astronomy). ŁW was supported by Polish National Science Centre Grant No. OPUS 2015/17/B/ST9/03167.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Emil Aaltonen FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Finnish Cultural FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)PRIN-INAF 2014
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)PRIN 2010-2011
Danish Agency for Science and Technology and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Villum FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2016-80079-C2-1-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)ESP2014-55996-C2-1-R
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)MDM-2014-0369
Instrument Centre for Danish AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)OPUS 2015/17/B/ST9/03167
Subject Keywords:stars: magnetars – stars: massive – supernovae: individual (Gaia16apd)
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170623-151906984
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:T. Kangas, N. Blagorodnova, S. Mattila, P. Lundqvist, M. Fraser, U. Burgaz, E. Cappellaro, J. M. Carrasco Martínez, N. Elias-Rosa, L. K. Hardy, J. Harmanen, E. Y. Hsiao, J. Isern, E. Kankare, Z. Kołaczkowski, M. B. Nielsen, T. M. Reynolds, L. Rhodes, A. Somero, M. D. Stritzinger, Ł. Wyrzykowski; Gaia16apd – a link between fast and slowly declining type I superluminous supernovae. Mon Not R Astron Soc 2017; 469 (1): 1246-1258. doi: 10.1093/mnras/stx833
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:78528
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 Jun 2017 02:57
Last Modified:19 Nov 2019 23:00

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