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Galactic cold cores VIII. Filament formation and evolution: Filament properties in context with evolutionary models

Rivera-Ingraham, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Juvela, M. and Montillaud, J. and Men’shchikov, A. and Malinen, J. and Pelkonen, V.-M. and Marston, A. and Martin, P. G. and Pagani, L. and Paladini, R. and Paradis, D. and Ysard, N. and Ward-Thompson, D. and Bernard, J.-P. and Marshall, D. J. and Montier, L. and Tóth, L. V. (2017) Galactic cold cores VIII. Filament formation and evolution: Filament properties in context with evolutionary models. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 601 . Art. No. A94. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201628552.

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Context. The onset of star formation is intimately linked with the presence of massive unstable filamentary structures. These filaments are therefore key for theoretical models that aim to reproduce the observed characteristics of the star formation process in the Galaxy. Aims. As part of the filament study carried out by the Herschel Galactic Cold Cores Key Programme, here we study and discuss the filament properties presented in GCC VII (Paper I) in context with theoretical models of filament formation and evolution. Methods. A conservatively selected sample of filaments located at a distance D< 500 pc was extracted from the GCC fields with the getfilaments algorithm. The physical structure of the filaments was quantified according to two main components: the central (Gaussian) region of the filament (core component), and the power-law-like region dominating the filament column density profile at larger radii (wing component). The properties and behaviour of these components relative to the total linear mass density of the filament and the column density of its environment were compared with the predictions from theoretical models describing the evolution of filaments under gravity-dominated conditions. Results. The feasibility of a transition from a subcritical to supercritical state by accretion at any given time is dependent on the combined effect of filament intrinsic properties and environmental conditions. Reasonably self-gravitating (high_(Mline,core)) filaments in dense environments (AV≳ 3 mag) can become supercritical on timescales of t ~ 1 Myr by accreting mass at constant or decreasing width. The trend of increasing M_(line,tot) (M_(line,core) and M_(line,wing)) and ridge AV with background for the filament population also indicates that the precursors of star-forming filaments evolve coevally with their environment. The simultaneous increase of environment and filament AV explains the observed association between dense environments and high M_(line,core) values, and it argues against filaments remaining in constant single-pressure equilibrium states. The simultaneous growth of filament and background in locations with efficient mass assembly, predicted in numerical models of filaments in collapsing clouds, presents a suitable scenario for the fulfillment of the combined filament mass−environment criterium that is in quantitative agreement with Herschel observations.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Pelkonen, V.-M.0000-0002-8898-1047
Martin, P. G.0000-0002-5236-3896
Paladini, R.0000-0002-5158-243X
Ward-Thompson, D.0000-0003-1140-2761
Additional Information:© 2017 ESO. Received 18 March 2016. Accepted 23 February 2017. A.R-I. is currently a Research Fellow at ESA/ESAC and acknowledges support from the ESA Internal Research Fellowship Programme. The authors would like to thank Enrique Vázquez-Semadeni for his in-depth study of our results and detailed discussions that have greatly improved the content and presentation of this work. We are also grateful to Joerg Fischera for providing valuable insight for the interpretation of filament models. We thank PCMI for its general support to the “Galactic Cold Cores” project activities. J.M. and V.-M.P. acknowledge the support of Academy of Finland grant 250741. M.J. acknowledges the support of Academy of Finland grants 250741 and 1285769, as well as the Observatoire Midi-Pyrenees (OMP) in Toulouse for its support for a two-month stay at IRAP in the frame of the “OMP visitor programme 2014”. L.V.T. acknowledges OTKA grants NN111016 and K101393. We also thank J. Fischera, D. Arzoumanian, E. Falgarone, and P. André for useful discussions. SPIRE has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by Cardiff Univ. (UK) and including: Univ. Lethbridge (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, LAM (France); IFSI, Univ. Padua (Italy); IAC (Spain); Stockholm Observatory (Sweden); Imperial College London, RAL, UCL-MSSL, UKATC, Univ. Sussex (UK); and Caltech, JPL, NHSC, Univ. Colorado (USA). This development has been supported by national funding agencies: CSA (Canada); NAOC (China); CEA, CNES, CNRS (France); ASI (Italy); MCINN (Spain); SNSB (Sweden); STFC, UKSA (UK); and NASA (USA). PACS has been developed by a consortium of institutes led by MPE (Germany) and including UVIE (Austria); KU Leuven, CSL, IMEC (Belgium); CEA, LAM (France); MPIA (Germany); INAF-IFSI/OAA/OAP/OAT, LENS, SISSA (Italy); IAC (Spain). This development has been supported by the funding agencies BMVIT (Austria), ESA-PRODEX (Belgium), CEA/CNES (France), DLR (Germany), ASI/INAF (Italy), and CICYT/MCYT (Spain).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Space Agency (ESA)UNSPECIFIED
Academy of Finland250741
Academy of Finland1285769
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)NN111016
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)K101393
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie (BMVIT)UNSPECIFIED
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Comisión Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnología (CICYT)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología (MCYT)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:ISM: clouds infrared: ISM submillimeter: ISM dust, extinction stars: formation
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170627-100838981
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Official Citation:Galactic cold cores - VIII. Filament formation and evolution: Filament properties in context with evolutionary models A. Rivera-Ingraham, I. Ristorcelli, M. Juvela, J. Montillaud, A. Men’shchikov, J. Malinen, V.-M. Pelkonen, A. Marston, P. G. Martin, L. Pagani, R. Paladini, D. Paradis, N. Ysard, D. Ward-Thompson, J.-P. Bernard, D. J. Marshall, L. Montier and L. V. Tóth A&A, 601 (2017) A94 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:78603
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:27 Jun 2017 18:02
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 17:41

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