A Caltech Library Service

Mechanical On-Chip Microwave Circulator

Barzanjeh, S. and Wulf, M. and Peruzzo, M. and Kalaee, M. and Dieterle, P. B. and Painter, O. and Fink, J. M. (2017) Mechanical On-Chip Microwave Circulator. Nature Communications, 8 . Art. No. 953. ISSN 2041-1723. PMCID PMC5643437. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01304-x.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.

[img] PDF - Supplemental Material
Creative Commons Attribution.

[img] PDF (Peer Review File) - Supplemental Material
Creative Commons Attribution.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Nonreciprocal circuit elements form an integral part of modern measurement and communication systems. Mathematically they require breaking of time-reversal symmetry, typically achieved using magnetic materials and more recently using the quantum Hall effect, parametric permittivity modulation or Josephson nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate an on-chip magnetic-free circulator based on reservoir-engineered electromechanic interactions. Directional circulation is achieved with controlled phase-sensitive interference of six distinct electro-mechanical signal conversion paths. The presented circulator is compact, its silicon-on-insulator platform is compatible with both superconducting qubits and silicon photonics, and its noise performance is close to the quantum limit. With a high dynamic range, a tunable bandwidth of up to 30 MHz and an in situ reconfigurability as beam splitter or wavelength converter, it could pave the way for superconducting qubit processors with multiplexed on-chip signal processing and readout.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle Paper
Barzanjeh, S.0000-0003-0415-1423
Peruzzo, M.0000-0002-3415-4628
Painter, O.0000-0002-1581-9209
Fink, J. M.0000-0001-8112-028X
Additional Information:© 2017 The Authors. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit Received: 16 June 2017; Accepted: 08 September 2017; Published online: 16 October 2017. We thank Nikolaj Kuntner for the development of the Python virtual instrument panel and Georg Arnold for supplementary device simulations. This work was supported by IST Austria and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement No 732894 (FET Proactive HOT). S.B. acknowledges support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant agreement No 707438 (MSC-IF SUPEREOM). OJP acknowledges support from the AFOSR-MURI Quantum Photonic Matter, the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center (grant PHY-1125565) with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute at Caltech. Author Contributions: S.B. and J.M.F. conceived the ideas for the experiment. S.B. developed the theoretical model, performed and analysed the measurements. S.B., M.W., M.P. and J.M.F. designed the microwave circuit and built the experimental setup. M.K., P.B.D., J.M.F. and O.P. designed the mechanical nanobeam oscillator. J.M.F. and M.K. fabricated the sample. P.B.D. and O.P. contributed to sample fabrication. S.B. and J.M.F. wrote the manuscript. J.M.F. supervised the research. The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Group:Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Kavli Nanoscience Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
European Research Council (ERC)732894
Marie Curie Fellowship707438
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)UNSPECIFIED
Institute for Quantum Information and Matter (IQIM)UNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Kavli Nanoscience InstituteUNSPECIFIED
PubMed Central ID:PMC5643437
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170707-144005259
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:78868
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:10 Jul 2017 17:31
Last Modified:22 Mar 2022 18:03

Repository Staff Only: item control page