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Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer

Ingersoll, Andrew P. and Adumitroaie, Virgil and Allison, Michael D. and Atreya, Sushil and Bellotti, Amadeo A. and Bolton, Scott J. and Brown, Shannon T. and Gulkis, Samuel and Janssen, Michael A. and Levin, Steven M. and Li, Cheng and Li, Liming and Lunine, Jonathan I. and Orton, Glenn S. and Oyafuso, Fabiano A. and Steffes, Paul G. (2017) Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer. Geophysical Research Letters, 44 (15). pp. 7676-7685. ISSN 0094-8276. PMCID PMC7580824. doi:10.1002/2017GL074277.

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The latitude-altitude map of ammonia mixing ratio shows an ammonia-rich zone at 0–5°N, with mixing ratios of 320–340 ppm, extending from 40–60 bars up to the ammonia cloud base at 0.7 bars. Ammonia-poor air occupies a belt from 5–20°N. We argue that downdrafts as well as updrafts are needed in the 0–5°N zone to balance the upward ammonia flux. Outside the 0–20°N region, the belt-zone signature is weaker. At latitudes out to ±40°, there is an ammonia-rich layer from cloud base down to 2 bars that we argue is caused by falling precipitation. Below, there is an ammonia-poor layer with a minimum at 6 bars. Unanswered questions include how the ammonia-poor layer is maintained, why the belt-zone structure is barely evident in the ammonia distribution outside 0–20°N, and how the internal heat is transported through the ammonia-poor layer to the ammonia cloud base.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle
Ingersoll, Andrew P.0000-0002-2035-9198
Adumitroaie, Virgil0000-0001-7239-0069
Atreya, Sushil0000-0002-1972-1815
Bellotti, Amadeo A.0000-0003-2867-4173
Bolton, Scott J.0000-0002-9115-0789
Brown, Shannon T.0000-0002-7566-8537
Gulkis, Samuel0000-0002-4480-3628
Janssen, Michael A.0000-0001-5476-731X
Levin, Steven M.0000-0003-2242-5459
Li, Cheng0000-0002-8280-3119
Li, Liming0000-0002-5257-9849
Lunine, Jonathan I.0000-0003-2279-4131
Orton, Glenn S.0000-0001-7871-2823
Oyafuso, Fabiano A.0000-0002-8862-8737
Steffes, Paul G.0000-0003-3962-8957
Additional Information:© 2017 American Geophysical Union. Received 23 MAY 2017; Accepted 17 JUL 2017; Accepted article online 25 JUL 2017; Published online 5 AUG 2017. The work described in this paper was partly conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). API was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation (NSF grant 1411952). CL was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship and by the NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship Program. Other authors acknowledge support from the Juno Project of NASA. Juno/MWR data can be accessed on the Planetary Data System (PDS) at
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Earth and Space Science FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Jupiter; Juno; microwave; giant planet; atmosphere; dynamics
Issue or Number:15
PubMed Central ID:PMC7580824
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170726-074008801
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Ingersoll A. P., et al. (2017), Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 7676–7685, doi:10.1002/2017GL074277
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:79383
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:26 Jul 2017 22:23
Last Modified:23 Mar 2022 20:01

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