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A Secular Resonant Origin for the Loneliness of Hot Jupiters

Spalding, Christopher and Batygin, Konstantin (2017) A Secular Resonant Origin for the Loneliness of Hot Jupiters. Astronomical Journal, 154 (3). Art. No. 93. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa8174.

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Despite decades of inquiry, the origin of giant planets residing within a few tenths of an astronomical unit from their host stars remains unclear. Traditionally, these objects are thought to have formed further out before subsequently migrating inwards. However, the necessity of migration has been recently called into question with the emergence of in situ formation models of close-in giant planets. Observational characterization of the transiting subsample of close-in giants has revealed that "warm" Jupiters, possessing orbital periods longer than roughly 10 days more often possess close-in, co-transiting planetary companions than shorter period "hot" Jupiters, that are usually lonely. This finding has previously been interpreted as evidence that smooth, early migration or in situ formation gave rise to warm Jupiter-hosting systems, whereas more violent, post-disk migration pathways sculpted hot Jupiter-hosting systems. In this work, we demonstrate that both classes of planet may arise via early migration or in situ conglomeration, but that the enhanced loneliness of hot Jupiters arises due to a secular resonant interaction with the stellar quadrupole moment. Such an interaction tilts the orbits of exterior, lower-mass planets, removing them from transit surveys where the hot Jupiter is detected. Warm Jupiter-hosting systems, in contrast, retain their coplanarity due to the weaker influence of the host star's quadrupolar potential relative to planet–disk interactions. In this way, hot Jupiters and warm Jupiters are placed within a unified theoretical framework that may be readily validated or falsified using data from upcoming missions, such as TESS.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Spalding, Christopher0000-0001-9052-3400
Batygin, Konstantin0000-0002-7094-7908
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 June 30; revised 2017 July 12; accepted 2017 July 19; published 2017 August 14. This research is based in part upon work supported by NSF grant AST 1517936 and the NESSF Graduate Fellowship in Earth and Planetary Sciences (C.S). We would like to thank the anonymous referee for comments that improved the quality of the manuscript.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Earth and Space Science FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:planet – star interactions – planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability – planets and satellites: formation
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170815-074438942
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Christopher Spalding and Konstantin Batygin 2017 AJ 154 93
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:80405
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:15 Aug 2017 15:53
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 19:30

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