A Caltech Library Service

Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform

Emaminejad, Sam and Gao, Wei and Wu, Eric and Davies, Zoe A. and Nyein, Hnin Yin Yin and Challa, Samyuktha and Ryan, Sean P. and Fahad, Hossain M. and Chen, Kevin and Shahpar, Ziba and Talebi, Salmonn and Milla, Carlos and Javey, Ali and Davis, Ronald W. (2017) Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (18). pp. 4625-4630. ISSN 0027-8424. PMCID PMC5422810. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701740114.

[img] PDF - Published Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals’ health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 µL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. Our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Information CentralArticle
Gao, Wei0000-0002-8503-4562
Chen, Kevin0000-0002-6726-6132
Javey, Ali0000-0001-7214-7931
Additional Information:© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option. Contributed by Ronald W. Davis, February 14, 2017 (sent for review December 15, 2016; reviewed by Maneesh Jain and Andre Marziali. Author contributions: S.E., W.G., C.M., A.J., and R.W.D. designed research; S.E., W.G., E.W., Z.A.D., H.Y.Y.N., S.C., S.P.R., H.M.F., K.C., Z.S., S.T., C.M., A.J., and R.W.D. performed research; S.E., W.G., E.W., C.M., A.J., and R.W.D. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; S.E., W.G., E.W., C.M., A.J., and R.W.D. analyzed data; and S.E., W.G., E.W., C.M., A.J., and R.W.D. wrote the paper. Reviewers: M.J., Cirina; and A.M., University of British Columbia. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The work at Stanford University was supported by the National Institutes of Health Grant P01 HG000205; the work at University of California, Berkeley was supported by National Science Foundation Nanomanufacturing Systems for Mobile Computing and Energy Technologies Center. The sensor fabrication was performed in the Electronic Materials Laboratory (funded by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Material Sciences and Engineering Division of the US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231) and Stanford Nanofabrication Facility. K.C. acknowledges support from the Robert N. Noyce Fellowship in Microelectronics.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NIHP01 HG000205
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-AC02-05CH11231
Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (SNF)UNSPECIFIED
Robert N. Noyce FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:18
PubMed Central ID:PMC5422810
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20170921-082942611
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Sam Emaminejad, Wei Gao, Eric Wu, Zoe A. Davies, Hnin Yin Yin Nyein, Samyuktha Challa, Sean P. Ryan, Hossain M. Fahad, Kevin Chen, Ziba Shahpar, Salmonn Talebi, Carlos Milla, Ali Javey, and Ronald W. Davis Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform PNAS 2017 114 (18) 4625-4630; published ahead of print April 17, 2017, doi:10.1073/pnas.1701740114
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:81663
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:21 Sep 2017 18:26
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 19:45

Repository Staff Only: item control page