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Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. X. and Ananyeva, A. and Anderson, S. B. and Appert, S. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Barayoga, J. C. and Barish, B. C. and Berger, B. K. and Billingsley, G. and Biscans, S and Blackburn, J. K. and Blair, C. D. and Bork, R. and Brooks, A. F. and Brunett, S. and Cahillane, C. and Callister, T. A. and Cepeda, C. B. and Coughlin, M. W. and Couvares, P. and Coyne, D. C. and Ehrens, P. and Eichholz, J. and Etzel, T. and Feicht, J. and Fries, E. M. and Gossan, S. E. and Gushwa, K. E. and Gustafson, E. K. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Isi, M. and Kamai, B. and Kanner, J. B. and Kondrashov, V. and Korth, W. Z. and Kozak, D. B. and Lazzarini, A. and Markowitz, A. and Maros, E. and Massinger, T. J. and Matichard, F. and McIntyre, G. and McIver, J. and Meshkov, S. and Nevin, L. and Pedraza, M. and Perreca, A. and Quintero, E. A. and Reitze, D. H. and Robertson, N. A. and Rollins, J. G. and Sachdev, S. and Sanchez, E. J. and Sanchez, L. E. and Schmidt, P. and Smith, R. J. E. and Taylor, R. and Torrie, C. I. and Tso, R. and Urban, A. L. and Vajente, G. and Vass, S. and Venugopalan, G. and Wade, A. R. and Wallace, L. and Weinstein, A. J. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Williams, R. D. and Willis, J. L. and Wipf, C. C. and Xiao, S. and Yamamoto, H. and Zhang, L. and Zucker, M. E. and Zweizig, J. and Barkett, K. and Blackman, J. and Chen, Y. and Ma, Y. and Pang, B. and Scheel, M. and Thorne, K. S. and Varma, V. (2017) Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 848 (2). L13. ISSN 2041-8205. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20171016-073903716

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Abstract

On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is 5.0 x 10(-8). We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of (+1.74 ± 0.05) s between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (i) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between -3 x 10^(-15) and +7 x 10^(-16) times the speed of light, (ii) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (iii) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1–1.4 per year during the 2018–2019 observing run and 0.3–1.7 per year at design sensitivity.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa920cDOIArticle
http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/aa920cPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Adhikari, R. X.0000-0002-5731-5076
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Callister, T. A.0000-0001-9892-177X
Isi, M.0000-0001-8830-8672
Kamai, B.0000-0001-6521-9351
Kanner, J. B.0000-0001-8115-0577
Korth, W. Z.0000-0003-3527-1348
Kozak, D. B.0000-0003-3118-8950
Massinger, T. J.0000-0002-3429-5025
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Williams, R. D.0000-0002-9145-8580
Zucker, M. E.0000-0002-2544-1596
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Pang, B.0000-0002-5697-2162
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Received 2017 October 6; revised 2017 October 9; accepted 2017 October 9; published 2017 October 16. The authors thank the referees for their invaluable comments and feedback, especially in a timely manner. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation (NSF) for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and Advanced LIGO as well as the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) of the United Kingdom, the Max-Planck Society (MPS), and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction of Advanced LIGO and construction and operation of the GEO600 detector. Additional support for Advanced LIGO was provided by the Australian Research Council. The authors gratefully acknowledge the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, for the construction and operation of the Virgo detector and the creation and support of the EGO consortium. The authors also gratefully acknowledge research support from these agencies as well as by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Department of Science and Technology, India, the Science & Engineering Research Board (SERB), India, the Ministry of Human Resource Development, India, the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación, the Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació Recerca i Turisme and the Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes Balears, the Conselleria d’Educació Investigació Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat Valenciana, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the Russian Science Foundation, the European Commission, the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, the Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA), the Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO), the National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFI), the National Research Foundation of Korea, Industry Canada and the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation, the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada, the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovations, and Communications, the International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR), the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), the Leverhulme Trust, the Research Corporation, the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan and the Kavli Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the NSF, STFC, MPS, INFN, CNRS and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for provision of computational resources. The USRA co-authors gratefully acknowledge NASA funding through contract NNM13AA43C. The UAH coauthors gratefully acknowledge NASA funding from cooperative agreement NNM11AA01A. E.B. and T.D.C. are supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by Universities Space Research Association under contract with NASA. D.K., C.A.W.H., C.M.H., and T.L. gratefully acknowledge NASA funding through the Fermi GBM project. Support for the German contribution to GBM was provided by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) via the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR) under contract number 50 QV 0301. A.v.K. was supported by the Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWi) through DLR grant 50 OG 1101. N.C. and J.B. acknowledge support from NSF under grant PHY-1505373. S.M.B. acknowledges support from Science Foundation Ireland under grant 12/IP/1288. This work is based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), and with the participation of Russia and the USA. The INTEGRAL SPI project has been completed under the responsibility and leadership of CNES. The SPI-ACS detector system has been provided by MPE Garching/Germany. The SPI team is grateful to ASI, CEA, CNES, DLR, ESA, INTA, NASA and OSTC for their support. The Italian INTEGRAL team acknowledges the support of ASI/INAF agreement n. 2013- 025-R.1. R.D. and A.v.K. acknowledge the German INTEGRAL support through DLR grant 50 OG 1101. A.L. and R.S. acknowledge the support from the Russian Science Foundation (grant 14-22-00271). A.D. is funded by Spanish MINECO/ FEDER grant ESP2015-65712-C5-1-R. Some of the results in this paper have been derived using the HEALPix (Gorski et al. 2005) package. We are grateful VirtualData from LABEX P2IO for enabling access to the StratusLab academic cloud. We acknowledge the continuous support by the INTEGRAL Users Group and the exceptionally efficient support by the teams at ESAC and ESOC for the scheduling of the targeted follow-up observations.
Group:LIGO
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFUNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max-Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)UNSPECIFIED
Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)UNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of IndiaUNSPECIFIED
Department of Science and Technology (India)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB)UNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Human Resource Development (India)UNSPECIFIED
Agencia Estatal de InvestigaciónUNSPECIFIED
Vicepresidència i Conselleria d’Innovació Recerca i TurismeUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Educació i Universitat del Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Educació Investigació Cultura i Esport de la Generalitat ValencianaUNSPECIFIED
National Science Centre (Poland)UNSPECIFIED
Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF)UNSPECIFIED
Russian Foundation for Basic ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Russian Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
European CommissionUNSPECIFIED
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)UNSPECIFIED
Royal SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA)UNSPECIFIED
Lyon Institute of Origins (LIO)UNSPECIFIED
National Research, Development and Innovation Office Hungary (NKFI)UNSPECIFIED
National Research Foundation of KoreaUNSPECIFIED
Industry CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Province of Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Natural Science and Engineering Research Council Canada (NSERC)UNSPECIFIED
Canadian Institute for Advanced ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e ComunicaçãoUNSPECIFIED
International Center for Theoretical Physics South American Institute for Fundamental Research (ICTP-SAIFR)UNSPECIFIED
Research Grants Council of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)UNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Kavli FoundationUNSPECIFIED
NASANNM13AA43C
NASANNM11AA01A
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR)50 QV 0301
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR)50 OG 1101
NSFPHY-1505373
Science Foundation Ireland12/IP/1288
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)2013-025-R.1
Russian Science Foundation14-22-00271
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y CompetitividadESP2015-65712-C5-1-R
Subject Keywords:binaries: close; gamma-ray burst: general; gravitational waves
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20171016-073903716
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20171016-073903716
Official Citation:B. P. Abbott et al 2017 ApJL 848 L13
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:82359
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Joy Painter
Deposited On:16 Oct 2017 15:37
Last Modified:08 Jun 2018 22:26

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