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Optimal Load-side Control for Frequency Regulation in Smart Grids

Mallada, Enrique and Zhao, Changhong and Low, Steven (2017) Optimal Load-side Control for Frequency Regulation in Smart Grids. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 62 (12). pp. 6294-6309. ISSN 0018-9286. doi:10.1109/TAC.2017.2713529.

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Frequency control rebalances supply and demand while maintaining the network state within operational margins. It is implemented using fast ramping reserves that are expensive and wasteful, and which are expected to become increasingly necessary with the current acceleration of renewable penetration. The most promising solution to this problem is the use of demand response, i.e., load participation in frequency control. Yet it is still unclear how to efficiently integrate load participation without introducing instabilities and violating operational constraints. In this paper, we present a comprehensive load-side frequency control mechanism that can maintain the grid within operational constraints. In particular, our controllers can rebalance supply and demand after disturbances, restore the frequency to its nominal value, and preserve interarea power flows. Furthermore, our controllers are distributed (unlike the currently implemented frequency control), can allocate load updates optimally, and can maintain line flows within thermal limits. We prove that such a distributed load-side control is globally asymptotically stable and robust to unknown load parameters. We illustrate its effectiveness through simulations.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Related ItemConference Paper
Mallada, Enrique0000-0003-1568-1833
Zhao, Changhong0000-0003-0539-8591
Low, Steven0000-0001-6476-3048
Additional Information:© 2016 IEEE. Manuscript received July 2, 2016; revised February 18, 2017; accepted May 1, 2017. Date of publication June 8, 2017; date of current version December 1, 2017. This work was supported by NSF NetSE grant CNS 0911041, NSF CPS grant CNS 1544771, ARPA-E grant DE-AR0000226, Southern California Edison, National Science Council of Taiwan R.O.C. grant NSC 103-3113-P-008-001, Caltech Resnick Institute, Johns Hopkins E2SHI Seed Grant, and Johns Hopkins WSE startup funds. The authors would like to thank the associate editor and the anonymous reviewers whose valuable comments and suggestions considerably improved the manuscript.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Southern California EdisonUNSPECIFIED
National Science Council (Taipei)NSC 103-3113-P-008-001
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Johns Hopkins UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Power system control, power system dynamics, optimization, demand-side management
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20171101-115726975
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:E. Mallada, C. Zhao and S. Low, "Optimal Load-Side Control for Frequency Regulation in Smart Grids," in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 62, no. 12, pp. 6294-6309, Dec. 2017. doi: 10.1109/TAC.2017.2713529. URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:82832
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:01 Nov 2017 19:43
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 19:53

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