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M Dwarf Rotation from the K2 Young Clusters to the Field. I. A Mass–Rotation Correlation at 10 Myr

Somers, Garrett and Stauffer, John and Rebull, Luisa and Cody, Ann Marie and Pinsonneault, Marc (2017) M Dwarf Rotation from the K2 Young Clusters to the Field. I. A Mass–Rotation Correlation at 10 Myr. Astrophysical Journal, 850 (2). Art. No. 134. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa93ed.

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Recent observations of the low-mass (0.1−0.6 M⊙) rotation distributions of the Pleiades and Praesepe clusters have revealed a ubiquitous correlation between mass and rotation, such that late M dwarfs rotate an order-of-magnitude faster than early M dwarfs. In this paper, we demonstrate that this mass–rotation correlation is present in the 10 Myr Upper Scorpius association, as revealed by new K2rotation measurements. Using rotational evolution models, we show that the low-mass rotation distribution of the 125 Myr Pleiades cluster can only be produced if it hosted an equally strong mass–rotation correlation at 10 Myr. This suggests that physical processes important in the early pre-main sequence (PMS; star formation, accretion, disk-locking) are primarily responsible for the M dwarf rotation morphology, and not quirks of later angular momentum (AM) evolution. Such early mass trends must be taken into account when constructing initial conditions for future studies of stellar rotation. Finally, we show that the average M star loses ~25%–40% of its AM between 10 and 125 Myr, a figure accurately and generically predicted by modern solar-calibrated wind models. Their success rules out a lossless PMS and validates the extrapolation of magnetic wind laws designed for solar-type stars to the low-mass regime at early times.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Somers, Garrett0000-0002-9322-0314
Stauffer, John0000-0003-3595-7382
Rebull, Luisa0000-0001-6381-515X
Cody, Ann Marie0000-0002-3656-6706
Pinsonneault, Marc0000-0002-7549-7766
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 August 28; revised 2017 October 13; accepted 2017 October 13; published 2017 November 27. We thank Lynne Hillenbrand for comments on the manuscript, Keivan Stassun for helpful advice on the determinations of stellar masses, and Greg Herczeg and Fang Qiliang for providing their Upper Scorpius extinction values. This paper includes data collected by the K2 mission. Funding for the K2 mission is provided by the NASA Science Mission directorate. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. G.S. acknowledges the support of the Vanderbilt Office of the Provost through the Vanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA) fellowship. M.H.P. would like to acknowledge support from NASA grant NNX15AF13G. Software: YREC (Demarque et al. 2008), rotevol (van Saders & Pinsonneault 2013).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Vanderbilt UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:stars: evolution – stars: formation – stars: low-mass – stars: pre-main sequence – stars: rotation
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20171127-144515584
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Garrett Somers et al 2017 ApJ 850 134
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:83460
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:27 Nov 2017 23:01
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 19:58

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