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High-yield single-step catalytic growth of graphene nanostripes by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

Hsu, Chen-Chih and Bagley, Jacob D. and Teague, Marcus L. and Tseng, Wei-Shiuan and Yang, Kathleen L. and Zhang, Yiran and Li, Yiliang and Li, Yilun and Tour, James M. and Yeh, N.-C. (2018) High-yield single-step catalytic growth of graphene nanostripes by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Carbon, 129 . pp. 527-536. ISSN 0008-6223. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2017.12.058.

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We report a single-step growth process of graphene nanostripes (GNSPs) by adding certain substituted aromatics (e.g., 1,2-dichlorobenzene) as precursors during the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Without any active heating and by using low plasma power (≤60 W), we are able to grow GNSPs vertically with high yields up to (13 ± 4) g/m^2 in 20 min. These GNSPs exhibit high aspect ratios (from 10:1 to >∼130:1) and typical widths from tens to hundreds of nanometers on various transition-metal substrates. The morphology, electronic properties and yields of the GNSPs can be controlled by the growth parameters (e.g., the species of seeding molecules, compositions and flow rates of the gases introduced into the plasma, plasma power, and the growth time). Studies of the Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy images, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy images, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and electrical conductivity of these GNSPs as functions of the growth parameters confirm high-quality GNSPs with electrical mobility ∼10^4 cm^2/V-s. These results together with residual gas analyzer spectra and optical emission spectroscopy taken during PECVD growth suggest the important roles of both substituted aromatics and hydrogen plasma in the rapid vertical growth of GNSPs with large aspect ratios.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Zhang, Yiran0000-0002-8477-0074
Tour, James M.0000-0002-8479-9328
Yeh, N.-C.0000-0002-1826-419X
Additional Information:© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Received 1 November 2017, Revised 14 December 2017, Accepted 15 December 2017, Available online 16 December 2017. This work at Caltech was supported by the Grubstake Award, and that at Rice University was sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0111). The authors acknowledge the use of XPS/UPS at the Beckman Institute and the AFM and four-probe station at the Kavli Nanoscience Institute. W.single bondS. Tseng acknowledges the partial support from the Dragon Gate Program by the Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan. Yiran Zhang and Yiliang Li acknowledge financial support respectively from the Ziyuan College at the Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China and from the Tsien Excellence in Education Program (TEEP) at the Tsinghua University in China during their visit to Caltech as visiting undergraduate researchers.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Caltech Grubstake FundUNSPECIFIED
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR)FA9550-14-1-0111
Ministry of Science and Technology (Taipei)UNSPECIFIED
Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Tsinghua UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20171219-081713406
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Official Citation:Chen-Chih Hsu, Jacob D. Bagley, Marcus L. Teague, Wei-Shiuan Tseng, Kathleen L. Yang, Yiran Zhang, Yiliang Li, Yilun Li, James M. Tour, N.-C. Yeh, High-yield single-step catalytic growth of graphene nanostripes by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, Carbon, Volume 129, April 2018, Pages 527-536, ISSN 0008-6223, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:83954
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:19 Dec 2017 17:11
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:15

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