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Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

Luo, Yingdi and Ampuero, Jean-Paul and Miyakoshi, Ken and Irikura, Kojiro (2017) Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations. In: Best Practices in Physics-based Fault Rupture Models for Seismic Hazard Assessment of Nuclear Installations. Pageoph Topical Volumes. Birkhäuser , Cham, Switzerland, pp. 7-18. ISBN 978-3-319-72708-0.

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Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment (M0) and rupture area (A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M0–A2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counterintuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M0–A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

Item Type:Book Section
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URLURL TypeDescription chapter reprint from journal article ReadCube Access - Journal article
Luo, Yingdi0000-0002-1165-6107
Ampuero, Jean-Paul0000-0002-4827-7987
Additional Information:© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG. First Online: 21 December 2017. Reprinted from: Pure Appl. Geophys. 174 (2017), 3331–3342, © 2017 Springer International Publishing. DOI 10.1007/s00024-017-1467-4. This study was based on the 2015 research project ‘Improvement for uncertainty of strong ground motion prediction’ by the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA), Japan.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Subject Keywords:Earthquake scaling relations; surface rupture effects; earthquake cycle model; rate-and-state friction; analytical dislocation model; numerical crack model
Series Name:Pageoph Topical Volumes
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20171220-111235529
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:83980
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:20 Dec 2017 19:38
Last Modified:21 Apr 2023 21:01

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