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A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior

Guillot, T. and Miguel, Y. and Militzer, B. and Hubbard, W. B. and Kaspi, Y. and Galanti, E. and Cao, H. and Helled, R. and Wahl, S. M. and Iess, L. and Folkner, W. M. and Stevenson, D. J. and Lunine, J. I. and Reese, D. R. and Biekman, A. and Parisi, M. and Durante, D. and Connerney, J. E. P. and Levin, S. M. and Bolton, S. J. (2018) A suppression of differential rotation in Jupiter’s deep interior. Nature, 555 (7695). pp. 227-230. ISSN 0028-0836.

[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 1 : Validation of the calculation of gravitational harmonics with the CEPAM method) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 2 : Constraint on the characteristic amplitude of deep differential rotation in Jupiter) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 1: Parameters used for the calculation of interior models) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 2: Comparison of model gravitational harmonics) - Supplemental Material
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Jupiter’s atmosphere is rotating differentially, with zones and belts rotating at speeds that differ by up to 100 metres per second. Whether this is also true of the gas giant’s interior has been unknown, limiting our ability to probe the structure and composition of the planet. The discovery by the Juno spacecraft that Jupiter’s gravity field is north–south asymmetric and the determination of its non-zero odd gravitational harmonics J_3, J_5, J_7 and J_9 demonstrates that the observed zonal cloud flow must persist to a depth of about 3,000 kilometres from the cloud tops. Here we report an analysis of Jupiter’s even gravitational harmonics J_4, J_6, J_8 and J_(10) as observed by Juno and compared to the predictions of interior models. We find that the deep interior of the planet rotates nearly as a rigid body, with differential rotation decreasing by at least an order of magnitude compared to the atmosphere. Moreover, we find that the atmospheric zonal flow extends to more than 2,000 kilometres and to less than 3,500 kilometres, making it fully consistent with the constraints obtained independently from the odd gravitational harmonics. This depth corresponds to the point at which the electric conductivity becomes large and magnetic drag should suppress differential rotation. Given that electric conductivity is dependent on planetary mass, we expect the outer, differentially rotating region to be at least three times deeper in Saturn and to be shallower in massive giant planets and brown dwarfs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Guillot, T.0000-0002-7188-8428
Miguel, Y.0000-0002-0747-8862
Kaspi, Y.0000-0003-4089-0020
Galanti, E.0000-0002-5440-8779
Cao, H.0000-0002-6917-8363
Stevenson, D. J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Lunine, J. I.0000-0003-2279-4131
Durante, D.0000-0002-7888-3021
Connerney, J. E. P.0000-0001-7478-6462
Levin, S. M.0000-0003-2242-5459
Bolton, S. J.0000-0002-9115-0789
Alternate Title:Constraints on differential rotation in Jupiter from Juno's even gravitational moments
Additional Information:© 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited. received 19 September 2017; accepted 17 January 2018. This research was carried out at the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur under the sponsorship of the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales; at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA; by the Southwest Research Institute under contract with NASA; and at the Weizmann Institute of Science under contract with the Israeli Space Agency. Computations were performed on the ‘Mesocentre SIGAMM’ machine, hosted by the Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur. Author Contributions: T.G., Y.M. and B.M. ran interior models of Jupiter and carried out the analysis. W.B.H. and A.B. compared gravitational harmonics obtained by different methods. E.G. and Y.K. calculated the offset introduced by differential rotation. H.C., R.H., D.J.S. and J.I.L. provided theoretical support. S.M.W. provided additional interior models of Jupiter. D.R.R. provided a routine to calculate high-order gravitational harmonics efficiently. W.M.F., M.P. and D.D. carried out the analysis of the Juno gravity data. J.E.P.C., S.M.L. and S.J.B. supervised the planning, execution and definition of the Juno gravity experiment. Code availability: The CEPAM code is available for download at Data availability: Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated during the current study. The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Israel Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:7695
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180104-110131779
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Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84078
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Mar 2018 00:46
Last Modified:13 Apr 2020 18:23

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