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OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb: The First Spitzer Bulge Planet Lies Near the Planet/Brown-dwarf Boundary

Ryu, Y.-H. and Calchi Novati, S. and Carey, S. and Henderson, C. B. and Beichman, C. (2018) OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb: The First Spitzer Bulge Planet Lies Near the Planet/Brown-dwarf Boundary. Astronomical Journal, 155 (1). Art. No. 40. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa9be4.

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We report the discovery of OGLE-2016-BLG-1190Lb, which is likely to be the first Spitzermicrolensing planet in the Galactic bulge/bar, an assignation that can be confirmed by two epochs of high-resolution imaging of the combined source–lens baseline object. The planet's mass, M_p = 13.4 ± 0.9 M_J , places it right at the deuterium-burning limit, i.e., the conventional boundary between "planets" and "brown dwarfs." Its existence raises the question of whether such objects are really "planets" (formed within the disks of their hosts) or "failed stars" (low-mass objects formed by gas fragmentation). This question may ultimately be addressed by comparing disk and bulge/bar planets, which is a goal of the Spitzer microlens program. The host is a G dwarf, M_(host) = 0.89 ± 0.07 M⊙, and the planet has a semimajor axis a ~ 2.0 au. We use Kepler K2 Campaign 9 microlensing data to break the lens-mass degeneracy that generically impacts parallax solutions from Earth–Spitzerobservations alone, which is the first successful application of this approach. The microlensing data, derived primarily from near-continuous, ultradense survey observations from OGLE, MOA, and three KMTNet telescopes, contain more orbital information than for any previous microlensing planet, but not quite enough to accurately specify the full orbit. However, these data do permit the first rigorous test of microlensing orbital-motion measurements, which are typically derived from data taken over <1% of an orbital period.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ryu, Y.-H.0000-0001-9823-2907
Calchi Novati, S.0000-0002-7669-1069
Carey, S.0000-0002-0221-6871
Henderson, C. B.0000-0001-8877-9060
Beichman, C.0000-0002-5627-5471
Additional Information:© 2017 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 August 22; revised 2017 November 15; accepted 2017 November 17; published 2017 December 28. The work by W.Z., Y.K.J., and A.G. were supported by AST-1516842 from the US NSF. W.Z., I.G.S., and A.G. were supported by JPL grant 1500811. This research has made use of the KMTNet system operated by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and the data were obtained at three host sites of CTIO in Chile, SAAO in South Africa, and SSO in Australia. The work by C.H. was supported by the grant (2017R1A4A101517) of National Research Foundation of Korea. The OGLE project has received funding from the National Science Centre, Poland, grant MAESTRO 2014/14/A/ST9/00121 to A.U. The MOA project is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JSPS24253004, JSPS26247023, JSPS23340064, JSPS15H00781, and JP16H06287. The work by C.R. was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Goddard Space Flight Center, administered by USRA through a contract with NASA. The work by Y.S. was supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, administered by the Universities Space Research Association through a contract with NASA. The United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) is supported by NASA and operated under an agreement among the University of Hawaii, the University of Arizona, and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center; operations are enabled through the cooperation of the Joint Astronomy Centre of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the UK. We acknowledge the support from NASA HQ for the UKIRT observations in connection with K2 C9. This research uses data obtained through the Telescope Access Program (TAP), which has been funded by the National Astronomical Observatories of China, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (the Strategic Priority Research Program "The Emergence of Cosmological Structures" grant No. XDB09000000), and the Special Fund for Astronomy from the Ministry of Finance. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work was performed in part under contract with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. The work by M.T.P. and B.S.G. was supported by NASA grant NNX16AC62G. This work was partly supported by the National Science Foundation of China (grant No. 11333003, 11390372 to S.M.). K.H. acknowledges support from STFC grant ST/M001296/1. This work makes use of observations from the LCOGT network, which includes three SUPAscopes owned by the University of St. Andrews. The RoboNet programme is an LCO Key Project using time allocations from the University of St. Andrews, LCOGT, and the University of Heidelberg together with time on the Liverpool Telescope through the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), UK. This research has made use of the LCO Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the Las Cumbres Observatory. The work by S.R. and S.S. was supported by INSF-95843339.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Research Foundation of Korea2017R1A4A101517
National Science Centre (Poland)2014/14/A/ST9/00121
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)24253004
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)26247023
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)23340064
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)15H00781
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)JP16H06287
NASA Postdoctoral ProgramUNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB09000000
Ministry of Finance (China)UNSPECIFIED
National Natural Science Foundation of China11333003
National Natural Science Foundation of China11390372
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/M001296/1
Irannian National Science Foundation95843339
Subject Keywords:gravitational lensing: micro
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180105-091323074
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Y.-H. Ryu et al 2018 AJ 155 40
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84119
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:05 Jan 2018 17:42
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:17

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