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Jupiter’s atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep

Kaspi, Y. and Galanti, E. and Hubbard, W. B. and Stevenson, D. J. and Bolton, S. J. and Iess, L. and Guillot, T. and Bloxham, J. and Connerney, J. E. P. and Cao, H. and Durante, D. and Folkner, W. M. and Helled, R. and Ingersoll, A. P. and Levin, S. M. and Lunine, J. I. and Miguel, Y. and Militzer, B. and Parisi, M. and Wahl, S. M. (2018) Jupiter’s atmospheric jet streams extend thousands of kilometres deep. Nature, 555 (7695). pp. 223-226. ISSN 0028-0836.

[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 1 : The vorticity balance) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 2 : Jupiter’s mass distribution) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 3 : Example of wind profiles used for the statistical significance test) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 4 : Optimized solutions for the odd harmonics using random zonal wind profiles) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Figure 5 : Solutions for the odd harmonics using random zonal wind profiles and a fixed vertical profile) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 1: Flow-induced even gravity harmonics) - Supplemental Material
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[img] Image (JPEG) (Extended Data Table 2: The weights matrix W used in the cost function L of equation (16)) - Supplemental Material
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The depth to which Jupiter’s observed east–west jet streams extend has been a long-standing question. Resolving this puzzle has been a primary goal for the Juno spacecraft, which has been in orbit around the gas giant since July 2016. Juno’s gravitational measurements have revealed that Jupiter’s gravitational field is north–south asymmetric, which is a signature of the planet’s atmospheric and interior flows. Here we report that the measured odd gravitational harmonics J_3, J_5, J_7 and J_9 indicate that the observed jet streams, as they appear at the cloud level, extend down to depths of thousands of kilometres beneath the cloud level, probably to the region of magnetic dissipation at a depth of about 3,000  kilometres. By inverting the measured gravity values into a wind field, we calculate the most likely vertical profile of the deep atmospheric and interior flow, and the latitudinal dependence of its depth. Furthermore, the even gravity harmonics J_8 and J_(10) resulting from this flow profile also match the measurements, when taking into account the contribution of the interior structure. These results indicate that the mass of the dynamical atmosphere is about one per cent of Jupiter’s total mass.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access
Kaspi, Y.0000-0003-4089-0020
Galanti, E.0000-0002-5440-8779
Stevenson, D. J.0000-0001-9432-7159
Bolton, S. J.0000-0002-9115-0789
Guillot, T.0000-0002-7188-8428
Bloxham, J.0000-0001-8556-2675
Connerney, J. E. P.0000-0001-7478-6462
Cao, H.0000-0002-6917-8363
Durante, D.0000-0002-7888-3021
Ingersoll, A. P.0000-0002-2035-9198
Levin, S. M.0000-0003-2242-5459
Lunine, J. I.0000-0003-2279-4131
Miguel, Y.0000-0002-0747-8862
Alternate Title:Jupiter’s deep atmosphere revealed by Juno’s asymmetric gravity measurements
Additional Information:© 2018 Macmillan Publishers Limited. received 19 September 2017; accepted 17 January 2018. We thank M. Allison and A. Showman for discussions. The research described here was carried out in part at the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) under the sponsorship of the Israeli Space Agency, the Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science at the WIS and the WIS Center for Scientific Excellence (Y.K. and E.G.); at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA (W.M.F., M.P. and S.M.L.); at the Southwest Research Institute under contract with NASA (S.J.B.); at the Université Côte d’Azur under the sponsorship of Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (T.G. and Y.M.); and at La Sapienza University under contract with Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (L.I. and D.D.). All authors acknowledge support from the Juno project. Author Contributions: Y.K. and E.G. designed the study. Y.K. wrote the paper. E.G. developed the gravity inversion model. D.J.S. led the working group within the Juno Science Team and provided theoretical support. W.B.H. initiated the Juno gravity experiment and provided theoretical support. W.B.H., T.G., Y.M., R.H., B.M. and S.L.W. provided interior models and tested the implications of the results. L.I., D.D., W.M.F. and M.P. carried out the analysis of the Juno gravity data. H.C., D.J.S. and J.B. supported the interpretation regarding the magnetic field. J.I.L. and A.P.I. provided theoretical support. S.J.B., S.M.L. and J.E.P.C. supervised the planning, execution and definition of the Juno gravity experiment. All authors contributed to the discussion and interpretation of the results within the Juno Interiors Working Group. Code availability: The code for inversion of the gravity measurements is available at Data availability: Figure data are available upon request. The authors declare no competing financial interests
Group:Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Israeli Space AgencyUNSPECIFIED
Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES)UNSPECIFIED
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)UNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:7695
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180105-132143596
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84131
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Mar 2018 00:19
Last Modified:20 Apr 2020 08:47

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