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Hard x-ray optics: from HEFT to NuSTAR

Koglin, Jason E. and Chen, C. M. Hubert and Chonko, Jim C. and Christensen, Finn E. and Craig, William W. and Decker, Todd R. and Hailey, Charles J. and Harrison, Fiona A. and Jensen, Carsten P. and Madsen, Kristin K. and Pivovaroff, Michael J. and Stern, Marcela and Windt, David L. and Ziegler, Eric (2004) Hard x-ray optics: from HEFT to NuSTAR. In: UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems. Proceedings of SPIE. No.5488. Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers , Bellingham, WA, pp. 856-867. ISBN 9780819454201.

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Focusing optics are now poised to dramatically improve the sensitivity and angular resolution at energies above 10 keV to levels that were previously unachievable by the past generation of background limited collimated and coded-aperture instruments. Active balloon programs (HEFT), possible Explorer-class satellites (NuSTAR - currently under Phase A study), and major X-ray observatories (Con-X HXT) using focusing optics will play a major role in future observations of a wide range of objects including young supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and galaxy clusters. These instruments call for low cost, grazing incidence optics coated with depth-graded multilayer films that can be nested to achieve large collecting areas. Our approach to building such instruments is to mount segmented mirror shells with our novel error-compensating, monolithic assembly and alignment (EMAAL) procedure. This process involves constraining the mirror segments to successive layers of graphite rods that are precisely machined to the required conic-approximation Wolter-I geometry. We present results of our continued development of thermally formed glass substrates that have been used to build three HEFT telescopes and are proposed for NuSTAR. We demonstrate how our experience in manufacturing complete HEFT telescopes, as well as our experience developing higher performance prototype optics, will lead to the successful production of telescopes that meet the NuSTAR design goals.

Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Christensen, Finn E.0000-0001-5679-1946
Harrison, Fiona A.0000-0003-2992-8024
Madsen, Kristin K.0000-0003-1252-4891
Additional Information:© 2004 SPIE. Special Thanks to the staff at ESRF for their assistance with the high-energy measurements. This work is supported by a NASA grant to Columbia University: NAG5-5260 (Thermally Formed Optics for X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Astronomy), and by NASA grants to the California Institute of Technology with sub-awards to Columbia: Caltech No. 1019776 (High Energy Focusing Telescope) and Caltech No. 1046806 (Critical Technologies for the Constellation Hard X-Ray Telescope).
Group:NuSTAR, Space Radiation Laboratory
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Subject Keywords:Hard X-ray telescope, X-ray optics, segmented glass, thermally-slumped, HEFT, NuSTAR
Series Name:Proceedings of SPIE
Issue or Number:5488
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180109-134841660
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Official Citation:Jason E. Koglin, C. M. Hubert Chen, Jim C. Chonko, Finn E. Christensen, William W. Craig, Todd R. Decker, Charles J. Hailey, Fiona A. Harrison, Carsten P. Jensen, Kristin K. Madsen, Michael J. Pivovaroff, Marcela Stern, David L. Windt, Eric Ziegler, "Hard x-ray optics: from HEFT to NuSTAR", Proc. SPIE 5488, UV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems, (11 October 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.552470;
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84196
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 Jan 2018 22:36
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:17

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