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Dissipative Dicke model with collective atomic decay: Bistability, noise-driven activation, and the nonthermal first-order superradiance transition

Gelhausen, Jan and Buchhold, Michael (2018) Dissipative Dicke model with collective atomic decay: Bistability, noise-driven activation, and the nonthermal first-order superradiance transition. Physical Review A, 97 (2). Art. No. 023807. ISSN 2469-9926. http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180205-132135008

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Abstract

The Dicke model describes the coherent interaction of a laser-driven ensemble of two-level atoms with a quantized light field. It is realized within cavity QED experiments, which in addition to the coherent Dicke dynamics feature dissipation due to, e.g., atomic spontaneous emission and cavity photon loss. Spontaneous emission supports the uncorrelated decay of individual atomic excitations as well as the enhanced collective decay of an excitation that is shared by N atoms and whose strength is determined by the cavity geometry. We derive a many-body master equation for the dissipative Dicke model including both spontaneous emission channels and analyze its dynamics on the basis of Heisenberg-Langevin and stochastic Bloch equations. We find that the collective loss channel leads to a region of bistability between the empty and the superradiant state. Transitions between these states are driven by nonthermal Markovian noise. The interplay between dissipative and coherent elements leads to a genuine nonequilibrium dynamics in the bistable regime, which is expressed via a nonconservative force and a multiplicative noise kernel appearing in the stochastic Bloch equations. We present a semiclassical approach, based on stochastic nonlinear optical Bloch equations, which for the infinite-range Dicke model become exact in the large- N-limit. The absence of an effective free-energy functional, however, necessitates the inclusion of fluctuation corrections with O(1/N) for finite N < ∞ to locate the nonthermal first-order phase transition between the superradiant and the empty cavity.


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https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.023807DOIArticle
https://journals.aps.org/pra/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.023807PublisherArticle
Additional Information:© 2018 American Physical Society. Received 2 October 2017; published 5 February 2018. The authors thank S. Diehl and A. Rosch for inspiring discussions and comments on the manuscript. J.G. thanks the Bonn-Cologne Graduate School of Physics and Astronomy for financial support. M.B. acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and funding by the German Research Foundation through the Institutional Strategy of the University of Cologne within the German Excellence Initiative (ZUK 81).
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Bonn-Cologne Graduate School of Physics and AstronomyUNSPECIFIED
Alexander von Humboldt FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)ZUK 81
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180205-132135008
Persistent URL:http://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180205-132135008
Official Citation:Dissipative Dicke model with collective atomic decay: Bistability, noise-driven activation, and the nonthermal first-order superradiance transition. Gelhausen, Jan and Buchhold, Michael Phys. Rev. A, volume 97, issue 2 February, 2018 pages 023807, 2018 American Physical Society doi 10.1103/PhysRevA.97.023807 https://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevA.97.023807
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84676
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:05 Feb 2018 23:25
Last Modified:05 Feb 2018 23:25

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