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Formation of globular cluster candidates in merging proto-galaxies at high redshift: a view from the FIRE cosmological simulations

Kim, Ji-hoon and Ma, Xiangcheng and Grudić, Michael Y. and Hopkins, Philip F. and Hayward, Christopher C. and Wetzel, Andrew and Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André and Kereš, Dušan and Garrison-Kimmel, Shea and Murray, Norman (2018) Formation of globular cluster candidates in merging proto-galaxies at high redshift: a view from the FIRE cosmological simulations. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 474 (3). pp. 4232-4244. ISSN 0035-8711. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180221-135659103

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Abstract

Using a state-of-the-art cosmological simulation of merging proto-galaxies at high redshift from the FIRE project, with explicit treatments of star formation and stellar feedback in the interstellar medium, we investigate the formation of star clusters and examine one of the formation hypotheses of present-day metal-poor globular clusters. We find that frequent mergers in high-redshift proto-galaxies could provide a fertile environment to produce long-lasting bound star clusters. The violent merger event disturbs the gravitational potential and pushes a large gas mass of ≳ 10^(5–6) M⊙ collectively to high density, at which point it rapidly turns into stars before stellar feedback can stop star formation. The high dynamic range of the reported simulation is critical in realizing such dense star-forming clouds with a small dynamical time-scale, t_(ff)≲ 3 Myr, shorter than most stellar feedback time-scales. Our simulation then allows us to trace how clusters could become virialized and tightly bound to survive for up to ∼420 Myr till the end of the simulation. Because the cluster's tightly bound core was formed in one short burst, and the nearby older stars originally grouped with the cluster tend to be preferentially removed, at the end of the simulation the cluster has a small age spread.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2994DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.02988arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ma, Xiangcheng0000-0001-8091-2349
Grudić, Michael Y.0000-0002-1655-5604
Hopkins, Philip F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Hayward, Christopher C.0000-0003-4073-3236
Wetzel, Andrew0000-0003-0603-8942
Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André0000-0002-4900-6628
Kereš, Dušan0000-0002-1666-7067
Garrison-Kimmel, Shea0000-0002-4655-8128
Additional Information:© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2017 November 17. Received 2017 November 17; in original form 2017 April 10. Published: 23 November 2017. The authors thank Tom Abel, Nathan Bastian, Diederik Kruijssen, Joel Primack, and Eros Vanzella for useful discussions and insightful comments during the progress of this study. Ji-hoon Kim acknowledges support from NASA through an Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant PF4-150147 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060. He also acknowledges support from the Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics at Caltech. He thanks for the support from the computational team at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, from Shawfeng Dong at the University of California Santa Cruz, and from Chris Mach at Caltech during the usage of the clusters for simulation analyses. The computing time used for the presented simulations was provided by Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) allocations TG-AST120025, TG-AST130039, TG-AST140023, and TG-AST140064. XSEDE is supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) grant ACI-1053575. Philip Hopkins acknowledges support by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant 776 to the Caltech Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics, by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation through Sloan Research Fellowship BR2014-022, by the NSF through grant AST-1411920 and CAREER grant 1455342, and by NASA through the ATP grant NNX14AH35G. The Flatiron Institute is supported by the Simons Foundation. Andrew Wetzel acknowledges support by a Caltech-Carnegie Fellowship, in part through the Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics at Caltech, and by NASA through grant HST-GO-14734 from STScI. Claude-André Faucher-Giguère acknowledges support by the NSF through grants AST-1412836 and AST-1517491, by NASA through grant NNX15AB22G, and by STScI through grants HST-AR-14293.001-A and HST-GO-14268.022-A. Dušan Kereš acknowledges support by the NSF through grant AST-1412153, and by the Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. Shea Garrison-Kimmel acknowledges support from NASA through an Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant PF5-160136. The publicly available YT code used in the analysis of this work is the product of collaborative efforts by many independent scientists from numerous institutions around the world. Their commitment to open science has helped make this work possible.
Group:TAPIR, Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Einstein FellowshipPF4-150147
NASANAS8-03060
NSFACI-1053575
Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation776
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationBR2014-022
NSFAST-1411920
NSFAST-1455342
NASANNX14AH35G
Simons FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Caltech-Carnegie FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Caltech Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
NASAHST-GO-14734
NSFAST-1412836
NSFAST-1517491
NASANNX15AB22G
NASAHST-AR-14293.001-A
NASAHST-GO-14268.022-A
NSFAST-1412153
Research Corporation for Science AdvancementUNSPECIFIED
NASA Einstein FellowshipPF5-160136
Subject Keywords:stars: formation – globular clusters: general – galaxies: formation – galaxies: kinematics and dynamics – galaxies: star clusters: general – cosmology: theory
Issue or Number:3
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180221-135659103
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180221-135659103
Official Citation:Ji-hoon Kim, Xiangcheng Ma, Michael Y Grudić, Philip F Hopkins, Christopher C Hayward, Andrew Wetzel, Claude-André Faucher-Giguère, Dušan Kereš, Shea Garrison-Kimmel, Norman Murray; Formation of globular cluster candidates in merging proto-galaxies at high redshift: a view from the FIRE cosmological simulations, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 474, Issue 3, 1 March 2018, Pages 4232–4244, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/stx2994
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84909
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:21 Feb 2018 22:21
Last Modified:22 Nov 2019 23:08

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