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Diverse Lithologies and Alteration Events on the Rim of Noachian-Aged Endeavour Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars: In-Situ Compositional Evidence

Mittlefehldt, David W. and Gellert, Ralf and VanBommel, Scott and Ming, Douglas W. and Yen, Albert S. and Clark, Benton C. and Morris, Richard V. and Schröder, Christian and Crumpler, Larry S. and Grant, John A. and Jolliff, Bradley L. and Arvidson, Raymond E. and Farrand, William H. and Herkenhoff, Kenneth E. and Bell, James F., III and Cohen, Barbara A. and Klingelhöfer, Göstar and Schrader, Christian M. and Rice, James W. (2018) Diverse Lithologies and Alteration Events on the Rim of Noachian-Aged Endeavour Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars: In-Situ Compositional Evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets, 123 (5). pp. 1255-1306. ISSN 2169-9097. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180222-125519849

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Abstract

We report the results of geological studies by the Opportunity Mars rover on the Endeavour Crater rim. Four major units occur in the region (oldest to youngest): the Matijevic, Shoemaker, Grasberg, and Burns formations. The Matijevic formation, consisting of fine‐grained clastic sediments, is the only pre‐Endeavour‐impact unit and might be part of the Noachian etched units of Meridiani Planum. The Shoemaker formation is a heterogeneous polymict impact breccia; its lowermost member incorporates material eroded from the underlying Matijevic formation. The Shoemaker formation is a close analog to the Bunte Breccia of the Ries Crater, although the average clast sizes are substantially larger in the latter. The Grasberg formation is a thin, fine‐grained, homogeneous sediment unconformably overlying the Shoemaker formation and likely formed as an airfall deposit of unknown areal extent. The Burns formation sandstone overlies the Grasberg, but compositions of the two units are distinct; there is no evidence that the Grasberg formation is a fine‐grained subfacies of the Burns formation. The rocks along the Endeavour Crater rim were affected by at least four episodes of alteration in the Noachian and Early Hesperian: (i) vein formation and alteration of preimpact Matijevic formation rocks, (ii) low‐water/rock alteration along the disconformity between the Matijevic and Shoemaker formations, (iii) alteration of the Shoemaker formation along fracture zones, and (iv) differential mobilization of Fe and Mn, and CaSO_4‐vein formation in the Grasberg and Shoemaker formations. Episodes (ii) and (iii) possibly occurred together, but (i) and (iv) are distinct from either of these.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005474DOIArticle
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017JE005474/abstractPublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Mittlefehldt, David W.0000-0002-5920-8987
Gellert, Ralf0000-0001-7928-834X
VanBommel, Scott0000-0002-6565-0827
Ming, Douglas W.0000-0003-0567-8876
Clark, Benton C.0000-0002-5546-8757
Grant, John A.0000-0001-8276-1281
Arvidson, Raymond E.0000-0002-2854-0362
Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.0000-0002-3153-6663
Bell, James F., III0000-0002-2006-4074
Cohen, Barbara A.0000-0001-5896-5903
Additional Information:© 2018 American Geophysical Union. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Received 8 NOV 2017; Accepted 8 FEB 2018; Accepted article online 20 FEB 2018; Published online 24 MAY 2018. Rover operations described in this paper were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. We thank the members of the MER project who enabled daily science observations at the Opportunity landing site. The senior author is supported by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover Participating Scientist Program. We thank F. Hörz for enlightening and enormously helpful discussions on the geology of the Ries crater. We thank him and M. Cintala for discussions on cratering and impact phenomena in general, B. L. Redding for preparing the MI mosaics used here, J. B. Proton for help with some of the Pancam images, and J. R. Johnson and S. M. McLennan for comments on a draft version of the manuscript. We thank the reviewers A. Fraeman and H. Newsom, and Associate Editor A. D. Rogers for their comments and suggestions which led to substantial improvement of the manuscript. All data used in this article are listed in the references, tables, and supplements. Data for APXS integrations on all rock and soil targets acquired by Opportunity through Sol 4000 are available on the NASA Planetary Data System website: http://pds‐geosciences.wustl.edu/.
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:Mars Exploration Rover; Endeavour Crater; geochemistry; impact breccia; Mars alteration
Issue or Number:5
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180222-125519849
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180222-125519849
Official Citation:Mittlefehldt, D. W., Gellert, R., vanBommel, S., Ming, D. W., Yen, A. S., Clark, B. C., et al. (2018). Diverse lithologies and alteration events on the rim of Noachian‐aged Endeavour crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars: In situ compositional evidence. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 123, 1255–1306. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JE005474
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84925
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 Feb 2018 21:04
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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