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Spectra of Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory

Quimby, Robert M. and De Cia, Annalisa and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Leloudas, Giorgos and Lunnan, Ragnhild and Perley, Daniel A. and Vreeswijk, Paul M. and Yan, Lin and Bloom, Joshua S. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Cooke, Jeff and Ellis, Richard and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Kleiser, Io K. W. and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Matheson, Thomas and Nugent, Peter E. and Pan, Yen-Chen and Silverman, Jeffrey M. and Sternberg, Assaf and Sullivan, Mark and Yaron, Ofer (2018) Spectra of Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory. Astrophysical Journal, 855 (1). Art. No. 2. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaac2f.

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Most Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) reported to date have been identified by their high peak luminosities and spectra lacking obvious signs of hydrogen. We demonstrate that these events can be distinguished from normal-luminosity SNe (including Type Ic events) solely from their spectra over a wide range of light-curve phases. We use this distinction to select 19 SLSNe-I and four possible SLSNe-I from the Palomar Transient Factory archive (including seven previously published objects). We present 127 new spectra of these objects and combine these with 39 previously published spectra, and we use these to discuss the average spectral properties of SLSNe-I at different spectral phases. We find that Mn ii most probably contributes to the ultraviolet spectral features after maximum light, and we give a detailed study of the O ii features that often characterize the early-time optical spectra of SLSNe-I. We discuss the velocity distribution of O ii, finding that for some SLSNe-I this can be confined to a narrow range compared to relatively large systematic velocity shifts. Mg ii and Fe ii favor higher velocities than O ii and C ii, and we briefly discuss how this may constrain power-source models. We tentatively group objects by how well they match either SN 2011ke or PTF12dam and discuss the possibility that physically distinct events may have been previously grouped together under the SLSN-I label.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Quimby, Robert M.0000-0001-9171-5236
De Cia, Annalisa0000-0003-2082-1626
Gal-Yam, Avishay0000-0002-3653-5598
Leloudas, Giorgos0000-0002-8597-0756
Lunnan, Ragnhild0000-0001-9454-4639
Perley, Daniel A.0000-0001-8472-1996
Vreeswijk, Paul M.0000-0002-7572-9088
Yan, Lin0000-0003-1710-9339
Bloom, Joshua S.0000-0002-7777-216X
Cenko, S. Bradley0000-0003-1673-970X
Cooke, Jeff0000-0001-5703-2108
Ellis, Richard0000-0001-7782-7071
Filippenko, Alexei V.0000-0003-3460-0103
Kasliwal, Mansi M.0000-0002-5619-4938
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Matheson, Thomas0000-0001-6685-0479
Nugent, Peter E.0000-0002-3389-0586
Silverman, Jeffrey M.0000-0003-3325-3365
Sullivan, Mark0000-0001-9053-4820
Yaron, Ofer0000-0002-0301-8017
Additional Information:© 2018 American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 September 13. Accepted 2018 January 25. Published 2018 February 27. The data presented herein were obtained in part at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. We thank the following for assistance with some of the Lick and Keck observations and reductions: Kelsey Clubb, Ryan Foley, Christopher Griffith, Pat Kelly, Michael Kandrashoff, and Isaac Shivvers. The William Herschel Telescope is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Research at Lick Observatory is supported in part by a generous gift from Google. Support for HST programs GO-12223 and GO-12524 was provided by NASA through a grant from STScI, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. M.S. acknowledges support from EU/FP7-ERC grant no [615929]. A.D.C. acknowledges support by the Weizmann Institute of Science Koshland Center for Basic Research. A.V.F.'s supernova research group at U.C. Berkeley is grateful for generous financial assistance from the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, the TABASGO Foundation, NSF grant AST-1211916, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley). M.M.K. acknowledges support by the GROWTH project funded by NSF grant AST-1545949. J.C. acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council Future Fellowship, grant FT130101219. A.G.-Y. is supported by the EU via ERC grant No. 725161, the Quantum Universe I-Core program, the ISF, the BSF Transformative program and by a Kimmel award. We thank Melissa Graham for providing spectra of PTF12dam, PTF12gty, and PTF12hni.
Group:Palomar Transient Factory, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
Funding AgencyGrant Number
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Space Telescope Science InstituteUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS 5-26555
European Research Council (ERC)615929
Weizmann Institute of ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
Australian Research CouncilFT130101219
European Research Council (ERC)725161
Quantum Universe I-Core programUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Binational Science Foundation (USA-Israel)UNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180227-110439240
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Robert M. Quimby et al 2018 ApJ 855 2
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:84973
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:28 Feb 2018 00:43
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:24

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