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Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle

Pastorello, A. and Drake, A. J. and Djorgovski, S. G. (2018) Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 474 (1). pp. 197-218. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx2668.

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Supernova (SN) 2016bdu is an unusual transient resembling SN 2009ip. SN 2009ip-like events are characterized by a long-lasting phase of erratic variability that ends with two luminous outbursts a few weeks apart. The second outburst is significantly more luminous (about 3 mag) than the first. In the case of SN 2016bdu, the first outburst (Event A) reached an absolute magnitude M_r ≈ −15.3 mag, while the second one (Event B) occurred over one month later and reached M_r ≈ −18 mag. By inspecting archival data, a faint source at the position of SN 2016bdu is several times in the past few years. We interpret these detections as signatures of a phase of erratic variability, similar to that experienced by SN 2009ip between 2008 and mid-2012, and resembling the currently observed variability of the luminous blue variable SN 2000ch in NGC 3432. Spectroscopic monitoring of SN 2016bdu during the second peak initially shows features typical of an SN IIn. One month after the Event B maximum, the spectra develop broad Balmer lines with P Cygni profiles and broad metal features. At these late phases, the spectra resemble those of a typical Type II SN. All members of this SN 2009ip-like group are remarkably similar to the Type IIn SN 2005gl. For this object, the claim of a terminal SN explosion is supported by the disappearance of the progenitor star. While the similarity with SN 2005gl supports a genuine SN explosion scenario for SN 2009ip-like events, the unequivocal detection of nucleosynthesized elements in their nebular spectra is still missing.

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Djorgovski, S. G.0000-0002-0603-3087
Additional Information:© 2017 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2017 October 10. Received 2017 October 10; in original form 2017 April 10. We acknowledge S. Ascenzi, S. B. Cenko, R. Kotak, P. E. Nugent, N. Primak, A. S. B. Schultz, D. E. Wright, S. Yang for their contribution to the observations and useful suggestions, and Y. Cai for reading the paper before submission. AP, NER, SB, and GT are partially supported by the PRIN-INAF 2014 with the project ‘Transient Universe: unveiling new types of stellar explosions with PESSTO.’ NER acknowledges financial support by MIUR PRIN 2010-2011, ‘The dark Universe and the cosmic evolution of baryons: from current surveys to Euclid.’ MF acknowledges the support of a Royal Society – Science Foundation Ireland University Research Fellowship. This work is partly supported by the European Union FP7 programme through ERC grant number 320360. KZS and CSK are supported by US National Science Foundation (NSF) grants AST-1515876 and AST-1515927. SD is supported by Project 11573003 supported by NSFC and the ‘Strategic Priority Research Program - The Emergence of Cosmological Structures’ of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB09000000). BJS is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF-51348.001 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. AVF and WZ are grateful for financial assistance from NSF grant AST-1211916, the TABASGO Foundation, the Christopher R. Redlich Fund, and the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley); they also acknowledge support through grant HST-AR-14295 from STScI, which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The work of AVF was conducted in part at the Aspen Center for Physics, which is supported by NSF grant PHY-1607611; he thanks the Center for its hospitality during the neutron stars workshop in 2017 June and July. TW-SH is supported by the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellowship, grant number DE-FG02-97ER25308. Support for J.L.P. is in part by FONDECYT through the grant 1151445 and by the Ministry of Economy, Development, and Tourism’s Millennium Science Initiative through grant IC120009, awarded to The Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, MAS. SJS acknowledges (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC grant 291222. TK acknowledges financial support by the Emil Aaltonen Foundation. JH acknowledges financial support from the Finnish Cultural Foundation and the Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä Foundation of the Finnish Academy of Science and Letters. AG-Y is supported by the EU/FP7 via ERC grant No. 307260, the Quantum Universe I-Core program by the Israeli Committee for Planning and Budgeting, and the ISF; and by a Kimmel award. EOO is grateful to support by grants Israel Science Foundation, Minerva, and the I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting Committee and The Israel Science Foundation. MS acknowledges generous funding from the Danish Agency for Science and Technology and Innovation realized through a Sapere Aude Level II grant, and from the Villum foundation. The CRTS survey is supported by NSF grants AST-1313422 and AST-1413600. ATLAS observations were supported by NASA grant NN12AR55G. NUTS is supported in part by the Instrument Center for Danish Astrophysics (IDA). We thank Las Cumbres Observatory and its staff for their continued support of ASAS-SN. ASAS-SN is funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through grant GBMF5490 to the Ohio State University, NSF grant ast-1515927, the Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP) at OSU, the Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy (CASSACA), the Mt Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and George Skestos. The Pan-STARRS1 Surveys (PS1) have been made possible through contributions of the Institute for Astronomy, the University of Hawaii, the Pan-STARRS Project Office, the Max-Planck Society and its participating institutes, the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, The Johns Hopkins University, Durham University, the University of Edinburgh, Queen’s University Belfast, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network Incorporated, the National Central University of Taiwan, STScI, NASA under Grant No. NNX08AR22G issued through the Planetary Science Division of the NASA Science Mission Directorate, the US NSF under Grant No. AST-1238877, the University of Maryland, and Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE). Operation of the Pan-STARRS1 telescope is supported by NASA under Grant No. NNX12AR65G and Grant No. NNX14AM74G issued through the NEO Observation Program. This work is based in part on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias; the 1.82 m Copernico Telescope of INAF-Asiago Observatory; the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the Island of La Palma; the Tillinghast Telescope of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Iowa Robotic Telescope that is located at the Winer Observatory (Arizona) and is scheduled and operated remotely from the University of Iowa; the Catalina Real Time Survey (CRTS) Catalina Sky Survey (CSS) 0.7 m Schmidt Telescope; and the Liverpool Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by Liverpool John Moores University at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias with financial support from the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. KAIT and its ongoing operation were made possible by donations from Sun Microsystems, Inc., the Hewlett-Packard Company, AutoScope Corporation, Lick Observatory, the NSF, the University of California, the Sylvia & Jim Katzman Foundation, and the TABASGO Foundation. Research at Lick Observatory is partially supported by a generous gift from Google. This work made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. We also used NASA’s Astrophysics Data System. This publication made also use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by NASA and the NSF.
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF)PRIN 2014
Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca (MIUR)PRIN 2010-2011
Science Foundation, IrelandUNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)320360
National Natural Science Foundation of China11573003
Chinese Academy of SciencesXDB09000000
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF-51348.001
Space Telescope Science InstituteUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS 5-26555
Christopher R. Redlich FundUNSPECIFIED
Miller Institute for Basic Research in ScienceUNSPECIFIED
NASANAS 5-26555
Department of Energy (DOE)DE-FG02-97ER25308
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)1151445
Iniciativa Científica Milenio del Ministerio de Economía, Fomento y TurismoIC120009
European Research Council (ERC)291222
Emil Aaltonen FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Finnish Cultural FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Finnish Academy of Science and Letters (Vilho, Yrjö and Kalle Väisälä Foundation)UNSPECIFIED
European Research Council (ERC)307260
Israeli Committee for Planning and BudgetingUNSPECIFIED
Israel Science FoundationUNSPECIFIED
I-CORE Program of the Planning and Budgeting CommitteeUNSPECIFIED
Danish Agency for Science and Technology and InnovationUNSPECIFIED
Villum FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Instrument Center for Danish AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF5490
Ohio State UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics (CCAPP)UNSPECIFIED
Chinese Academy of Sciences South America Center for Astronomy (CASSACA)UNSPECIFIED
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
University of HawaiiUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Johns Hopkins UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Durham UniversityUNSPECIFIED
University of EdinburghUNSPECIFIED
Queen’s University BelfastUNSPECIFIED
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network IncorporatedUNSPECIFIED
National Central University (Taiwan)UNSPECIFIED
University of MarylandUNSPECIFIED
Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE)UNSPECIFIED
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Sun Microsystems, Inc.UNSPECIFIED
Hewlett-Packard CompanyUNSPECIFIED
AutoScope CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Lick ObservatoryUNSPECIFIED
University of CaliforniaUNSPECIFIED
Sylvia and Jim Katzman FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:supernovae: general, supernovae: individual: SN 2016bdu, SN 2005gl, SN 2009ip, SN 2010mc, LSQ13zm, SN 2015bh
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180301-083148762
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Official Citation:A. Pastorello, C. S. Kochanek, M. Fraser, Subo Dong, N. Elias-Rosa, A. V. Filippenko, S. Benetti, E. Cappellaro, L. Tomasella, A. J. Drake, J. Harmanen, T. Reynolds, B. J. Shappee, S. J. Smartt, K. C. Chambers, M. E. Huber, K. Smith, K. Z. Stanek, E. J. Christensen, L. Denneau, S. G. Djorgovski, H. Flewelling, C. Gall, A. Gal-Yam, S. Geier, A. Heinze, T. W.-S. Holoien, J. Isern, T. Kangas, E. Kankare, R. A. Koff, J.-M. Llapasset, T. B. Lowe, P. Lundqvist, E. A. Magnier, S. Mattila, A. Morales-Garoffolo, R. Mutel, J. Nicolas, P. Ochner, E. O. Ofek, E. Prosperi, A. Rest, Y. Sano, B. Stalder, M. D. Stritzinger, F. Taddia, G. Terreran, J. L. Tonry, R. J. Wainscoat, C. Waters, H. Weiland, M. Willman, D. R. Young, W. Zheng; Supernovae 2016bdu and 2005gl, and their link with SN 2009ip-like transients: another piece of the puzzle, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 474, Issue 1, 11 February 2018, Pages 197–218,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:85026
Deposited By: Ruth Sustaita
Deposited On:01 Mar 2018 20:43
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:25

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