A Caltech Library Service

Soliton Molecules and Multisoliton States in Ultrafast Fibre Lasers: Intrinsic Complexes in Dissipative Systems

Gui, Lili and Wang, Pan and Ding, Yihang and Zhao, Kangjun and Bao, Chengying and Xiao, Xiaosheng and Yang, Changxi (2018) Soliton Molecules and Multisoliton States in Ultrafast Fibre Lasers: Intrinsic Complexes in Dissipative Systems. Applied Sciences, 8 (2). Art. No. 201. ISSN 2076-3417. doi:10.3390/app8020201.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Creative Commons Attribution.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Benefiting from ultrafast temporal resolution, broadband spectral bandwidth, as well as high peak power, passively mode-locked fibre lasers have attracted growing interest and exhibited great potential from fundamental sciences to industrial and military applications. As a nonlinear system containing complex interactions from gain, loss, nonlinearity, dispersion, etc., ultrafast fibre lasers deliver not only conventional single soliton but also soliton bunching with different types. In analogy to molecules consisting of several atoms in chemistry, soliton molecules (in other words, bound solitons) in fibre lasers are of vital importance for in-depth understanding of the nonlinear interaction mechanism and further exploration for high-capacity fibre-optic communications. In this Review, we summarize the state-of-the-art advances on soliton molecules in ultrafast fibre lasers. A variety of soliton molecules with different numbers of soliton, phase-differences and pulse separations were experimentally observed owing to the flexibility of parameters such as mode-locking techniques and dispersion control. Numerical simulations clearly unravel how different nonlinear interactions contribute to formation of soliton molecules. Analysis of the stability and the underlying physical mechanisms of bound solitons bring important insights to this field. For a complete view of nonlinear optical phenomena in fibre lasers, other dissipative states such as vibrating soliton pairs, soliton rains, rogue waves and coexisting dissipative solitons are also discussed. With development of advanced real-time detection techniques, the internal motion of different pulsing states is anticipated to be characterized, rendering fibre lasers a versatile platform for nonlinear complex dynamics and various practical applications.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Yang, Changxi0000-0002-9972-6965
Additional Information:© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland. Received: 14 December 2017; Revised: 18 January 2018; Accepted: 23 January 2018; Published: 29 January 2018. This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (61377039, 61575106 and 51527901). Lili Gui additionally acknowledges financial support from the Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung for her research in Germany. Chengying Bao acknowledges a fellowship from the Resnick Institute, Caltech. Author Contributions: Lili Gui and Changxi Yang conceived the original idea; Lili Gui, Pan Wang and Chengying Bao summarized and analysed the main experimental results; Lili Gui, Yihang Ding and Kangjun Zhao analysed the state of the art and contributed to numerical simulation; Lili Gui, Changxi Yang, Pan Wang and Chengying Bao discussed the nonlinear interaction mechanisms; all authors discussed and wrote this manuscript. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript and in the decision to publish the results.
Group:Resnick Sustainability Institute
Funding AgencyGrant Number
National Natural Science Foundation of China61377039
National Natural Science Foundation of China61575106
National Natural Science Foundation of China51527901
Resnick Sustainability InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:soliton molecules; bound states; fibre lasers; nonlinear interaction; ultrafast nonlinear optics; fibre optics
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180329-123556060
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:85498
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Mar 2018 19:44
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:29

Repository Staff Only: item control page