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Robo-AO Kepler Survey. IV. The Effect of Nearby Stars on 3857 Planetary Candidate Systems

Ziegler, Carl and Law, Nicholas M. and Baranec, Christoph and Riddle, Reed and Duev, Dmitry A. and Howard, Ward and Jensen-Clem, Rebecca and Kulkarni, S. R. and Morton, Tim and Salama, Maïssa (2018) Robo-AO Kepler Survey. IV. The Effect of Nearby Stars on 3857 Planetary Candidate Systems. Astronomical Journal, 155 (4). Art. No. 161. ISSN 1538-3881. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aab042.

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We present the overall statistical results from the Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey, comprising of 3857 high-angular resolution observations of planetary candidate systems with Robo-AO, an automated laser adaptive optics system. These observations reveal previously unknown nearby stars blended with the planetary candidate host stars that alter the derived planetary radii or may be the source of an astrophysical false positive transit signal. In the first three papers in the survey, we detected 440 nearby stars around 3313 planetary candidate host stars. In this paper, we present observations of 532 planetary candidate host stars, detecting 94 companions around 88 stars; 84 of these companions have not previously been observed in high resolution. We also report 50 more-widely separated companions near 715 targets previously observed by Robo-AO. We derive corrected planetary radius estimates for the 814 planetary candidates in systems with a detected nearby star. If planetary candidates are equally likely to orbit the primary or secondary star, the radius estimates for planetary candidates in systems with likely bound nearby stars increase by a factor of 1.54, on average. We find that 35 previously believed rocky planet candidates are likely not rocky due to the presence of nearby stars. From the combined data sets from the complete Robo-AO KOI survey, we find that 14.5 ± 0.5% of planetary candidate hosts have a nearby star with 4", while 1.2% have two nearby stars, and 0.08% have three. We find that 16% of Earth-sized, 13% of Neptune-sized, 14% of Saturn-sized, and 19% of Jupiter-sized planet candidates have detected nearby stars.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Ziegler, Carl0000-0002-0619-7639
Law, Nicholas M.0000-0001-9380-6457
Baranec, Christoph0000-0002-1917-9157
Riddle, Reed0000-0002-0387-370X
Duev, Dmitry A.0000-0001-5060-8733
Howard, Ward0000-0002-0583-0949
Jensen-Clem, Rebecca0000-0003-0054-2953
Kulkarni, S. R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Morton, Tim0000-0002-8537-5711
Salama, Maïssa0000-0002-5082-6332
Additional Information:© 2018. The American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 December 11; revised 2018 February 12; accepted 2018 February 14; published 2018 March 21. We thank the anonymous referee for careful analysis and useful comments on the manuscript. This research is supported by the NASA Exoplanets Research Program, grant #NNX 15AC91G. C.Z. and W.H. acknowledge support from the North Carolina Space Grant consortium. C.B. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. The Robo-AO team thanks NSF and NOAO for making the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope available. We thank the observatory staff at Kitt Peak for their efforts to assist Robo-AO KP operations. Robo-AO KP is a partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of Hawaii, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) at Pune, India, and the National Central University, Taiwan. The Murty family feels very happy to have added a small value to this important project. Robo-AO KP is also supported by grants from the John Templeton Foundation and the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation. The Robo-AO instrument was developed with support from the National Science Foundation under grants AST-0906060, AST-0960343, and AST-1207891, IUCAA, the Mt. Cuba Astronomical Foundation, and by a gift from Samuel Oschin. These data are based on observations at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO Prop. ID: 15B-3001), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation. This research has made use of the Exoplanet Follow-up Observation Program website, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. This research has made use of the NASA Exoplanet Archive, which is operated by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Facilities: PO:1.5 m (Robo-AO) - , KPNO:2.1 m (Robo-AO). -
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
North Carolina Space Grant ConsortiumUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
John Templeton FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Mt. Cuba Astronomical FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:binaries: close; instrumentation: adaptive optics; methods: data analysis; methods: observational; planets and satellites: detection; techniques: high angular resolution
Issue or Number:4
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180404-154241094
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Carl Ziegler et al 2018 AJ 155 161
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:85620
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:05 Apr 2018 15:15
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:30

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