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Reducing process delays for real-time earthquake parameter estimation – An application of KD tree to large databases for Earthquake Early Warning

Yin, Lucy and Andrews, Jennifer and Heaton, Thomas (2018) Reducing process delays for real-time earthquake parameter estimation – An application of KD tree to large databases for Earthquake Early Warning. Computers and Geosciences, 114 . pp. 22-29. ISSN 0098-3004. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180418-085609694

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Abstract

Earthquake parameter estimations using nearest neighbor searching among a large database of observations can lead to reliable prediction results. However, in the real-time application of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems, the accurate prediction using a large database is penalized by a significant delay in the processing time. We propose to use a multidimensional binary search tree (KD tree) data structure to organize large seismic databases to reduce the processing time in nearest neighbor search for predictions. We evaluated the performance of KD tree on the Gutenberg Algorithm, a database-searching algorithm for EEW. We constructed an offline test to predict peak ground motions using a database with feature sets of waveform filter-bank characteristics, and compare the results with the observed seismic parameters. We concluded that large database provides more accurate predictions of the ground motion information, such as peak ground acceleration, velocity, and displacement (PGA, PGV, PGD), than source parameters, such as hypocenter distance. Application of the KD tree search to organize the database reduced the average searching process by 85% time cost of the exhaustive method, allowing the method to be feasible for real-time implementation. The algorithm is straightforward and the results will reduce the overall time of warning delivery for EEW.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2018.01.001DOIArticle
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098300417305964PublisherArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Andrews, Jennifer0000-0002-5679-5565
Heaton, Thomas0000-0003-3363-2197
Additional Information:© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. Received 29 May 2017, Revised 2 December 2017, Accepted 10 January 2018, Available online 11 January 2018.
Group:Seismological Laboratory
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180418-085609694
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180418-085609694
Official Citation:Lucy Yin, Jennifer Andrews, Thomas Heaton, Reducing process delays for real-time earthquake parameter estimation – An application of KD tree to large databases for Earthquake Early Warning, Computers & Geosciences, Volume 114, 2018, Pages 22-29, ISSN 0098-3004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2018.01.001. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098300417305964)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:85932
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:18 Apr 2018 16:02
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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