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xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe

Catinella, Barbara and Saintonge, Amélie and Janowiecki, Steven and Cortese, Luca and Davé, Romeel and Lemonias, Jenna J. and Cooper, Andrew P. and Schiminovich, David and Hummels, Cameron B. and Fabello, Silvia and Geréb, Katinka and Kilborn, Virginia and Wang, Jing (2018) xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 476 (1). pp. 875-895. ISSN 0035-8711. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty089.

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We present the extended GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey (xGASS), a gas fraction-limited census of the atomic hydrogen (H I) gas content of 1179 galaxies selected only by stellar mass (M⋆ = 10^9–10^(11.5) M_⊙) and redshift (0.01 < z < 0.05). This includes new Arecibo observations of 208 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H I spectra. In addition to extending the GASS H I scaling relations by one decade in stellar mass, we quantify total (atomic+molecular) cold gas fractions and molecular-to-atomic gas mass ratios, R_(mol), for the subset of 477 galaxies observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope. We find that atomic gas fractions keep increasing with decreasing stellar mass, with no sign of a plateau down to log M⋆/M_⊙ = 9. Total gas reservoirs remain H I-dominated across our full stellar mass range, hence total gas fraction scaling relations closely resemble atomic ones, but with a scatter that strongly correlates with R_(mol), especially at fixed specific star formation rate. On average, R_(mol) weakly increases with stellar mass and stellar surface density μ⋆, but individual values vary by almost two orders of magnitude at fixed M⋆ or μ⋆. We show that, for galaxies on the star-forming sequence, variations of R_(mol) are mostly driven by changes of the H I reservoirs, with a clear dependence on μ⋆. Establishing if galaxy mass or structure plays the most important role in regulating the cold gas content of galaxies requires an accurate separation of bulge and disc components for the study of gas scaling relations.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription
Cortese, Luca0000-0002-7422-9823
Hummels, Cameron B.0000-0002-3817-8133
Wang, Jing0000-0003-2078-137X
Additional Information:© 2018 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2018 January 4. Received 2017 December 18; in original form 2017 October 3. We thank Claudia Lagos for making the results of her simulations available and for useful discussions, and an anonymous referee for a very careful reading of our paper and constructive comments. BC is the recipient of an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT120100660). BC, SJ, and LC acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council’s Discovery Projects funding scheme (DP150101734). APC acknowledges the support of STFC grant ST/P000541/1. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED) which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana, and the Universities Space Research Association. GALEX (Galaxy Evolution Explorer) is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in April 2003. We gratefully acknowledge NASA’s support for construction, operation, and science analysis for the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology. Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. The SDSS Web Site is The SDSS is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions. The Participating Institutions are the American Museum of Natural History, Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, University of Basel, University of Cambridge, Case Western Reserve University, University of Chicago, Drexel University, Fermilab, the Institute for Advanced Study, the Japan Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, the Korean Scientist Group, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (LAMOST), Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), the Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), New Mexico State University, Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the United States Naval Observatory, and the University of Washington.
Group:TAPIR, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC)
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Australian Research CouncilFT120100660
Australian Research CouncilDP150101734
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)ST/P000541/1
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
Japanese MonbukagakushoUNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Higher Education Funding Council for EnglandUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution, galaxies: fundamental parameters, galaxies: ISM, radio lines: galaxies
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180425-144712383
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Barbara Catinella, Amélie Saintonge, Steven Janowiecki, Luca Cortese, Romeel Davé, Jenna J Lemonias, Andrew P Cooper, David Schiminovich, Cameron B Hummels, Silvia Fabello, Katinka Geréb, Virginia Kilborn, Jing Wang; xGASS: total cold gas scaling relations and molecular-to-atomic gas ratios of galaxies in the local Universe, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 476, Issue 1, 1 May 2018, Pages 875–895,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86038
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:25 Apr 2018 22:50
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:34

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