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Graphene Microelectrode Arrays for Electrical and Optical Measurements of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

Rastogi, Sahil Kumar and Bliley, Jacqueline and Shiwarski, Daniel J. and Raghavan, Guruprasad and Feinberg, Adam W. and Cohen-Karni, Tzahi (2018) Graphene Microelectrode Arrays for Electrical and Optical Measurements of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, 11 (5). pp. 407-418. ISSN 1865-5025. PMCID PMC6816697. doi:10.1007/s12195-018-0525-z.

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Introduction: Cell–cell communication plays a pivotal role in biological systems’ coordination and function. Electrical properties have been linked to specification and differentiation of stem cells into targeted progeny, such as neurons and cardiomyocytes. Currently, there is a critical need in developing new ways to complement fluorescent indicators, such as Ca2+-sensitive dyes, for direct electrophysiological measurements of cells and tissue. Here, we report a unique transparent and biocompatible graphene-based electrical platform that enables electrical and optical investigation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes’ (hESC-CMs) intracellular processes and intercellular communication. Methods: Graphene, a honeycomb sp2 hybridized two-dimensional carbon lattice, was synthesized using low pressure chemical vapor deposition system, and was tested for biocompatibility. Au and graphene microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were fabricated using well-established microfabrication methods. Au and graphene MEAs were interfaced with hESC-CMs to perform both optical and electrical recordings. Results: Optical imaging and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the presence of monolayer graphene. Viability assay showed biocompatibility of graphene. Electrochemical characterization proved graphene’s functional activity. Nitric acid treatment further enhanced the electrochemical properties of graphene. Graphene electrodes’ transparency enabled both optical and electrical recordings from hESC-CMs. Graphene MEA detected changes in beating frequency and field potential duration upon β-adrenergic receptor agonist treatment. Conclusion: The transparent graphene platform enables the investigation of both intracellular and intercellular communication processes and will create new avenues for bidirectional communication (sensing and stimulation) with electrically active tissues and will set the ground for investigations reported diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and arrhythmias.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access CentralArticle
Cohen-Karni, Tzahi0000-0001-5742-1007
Additional Information:© Biomedical Engineering Society 2018. (Received 19 February 2018; accepted 26 April 2018) Associate Editor William E. Bentley oversaw the review of this article. This article is part of the 2018 CMBE Young Innovators special issue. T. Cohen-Karni would like to thank the National Science Foundation (CBET1552833) and the Office of Naval Research (N000141712368). The authors would also like to thank Carnegie Mellon University Nanofabrication Facility, and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering Materials Characterization Facility (MCF). Sahil K. Rastogi, Jacqueline Bliley, Daniel J. Shiwarski, Guruprasad Raghavan, Adam W. Feinberg and Tzahi Cohen-Karni declare that they have no conflicts of interest. No human studies were carried out by the authors for this article. No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Office of Naval Research (ONR)N000141712368
Subject Keywords:Transparent electrodes, Calcium imaging, High spatial and temporal resolution, Bioelectronics, hESC-CM, Graphene
Issue or Number:5
PubMed Central ID:PMC6816697
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180504-145907630
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Rastogi, S.K., Bliley, J., Shiwarski, D.J. et al. Cel. Mol. Bioeng. (2018) 11: 407.
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86227
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 May 2018 14:31
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:36

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