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Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution. Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud

Barrado, D. and de Gregorio Monsalvo, I. and Huélamo, N. and Morales-Calderón, M. and Bayo, A. and Palau, A. and Ruiz, M. T. and Rivière-Marichalar, P. and Bouy, H. and Morata, Ó. and Stauffer, J. R. and Eiroa, C. and Noriega-Crespo, A. (2018) Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution. Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 612 . Art. No. A79. ISSN 0004-6361. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527938.

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Aims. The early evolutionary stage of brown dwarfs (BDs) is not very well characterized, especially during the embedded phase. Our goal is to gain insight into the dominant formation mechanism of very low-mass objects and BDs. Methods. We have conducted deep observations at 870 μm obtained with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope in order to identify young submillimeter (submm) sources in the Barnard 30 dark cloud. We have complemented these data with multi-wavelength observations from the optical to the far-IR and compiled complete spectral energy distributions in order to identify the counterparts, characterize the sources and to assess their membership to the association and stellar or substellar status based on the available photometric information. Results. We have identified 34 submm sources and a substantial number of possible and probable Barnard 30 members within each individual APEX/LABOCA beam. They can be classified into three distinct groups. First, 15 of these 34 have a clear optical or IR counterpart to the submm peak and nine of them are potential proto-BD candidates. Moreover, a substantial number of them could be multiple systems. A second group of 13 sources comprises candidate members with significant infrared excesses located away from the central submm emission. All of them include BD candidates, some displaying IR excess, but their association with submm emission is unclear. In addition, we have found six starless cores and, based on the total dust mass estimate, three might be pre-substellar (or pre-BDs) cores. Finally, the complete characterization of our APEX/LABOCA sources, focusing on those detected at 24 and/or 70 μm, indicates that in our sample of 34 submm sources there are, at least: two WTTs, four CTTs, five young stellar objects, eight proto-BD candidates (with another three dubious cases), and one very low luminosity objects. Conclusions. Our findings provide additional evidence concerning the BD formation mechanism, which seems to be a downsized version of the stellar formation.

Item Type:Article
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URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Huélamo, N.0000-0002-2711-8143
Stauffer, J. R.0000-0003-3595-7382
Noriega-Crespo, A.0000-0002-6296-8960
Additional Information:© 2018 ESO. Article published by EDP Sciences. Received 9 December 2015; Accepted 11 November 2017; Published online 30 April 2018. We thank the Calar Alto Observatory staff for their excellent work taking the near-IR data under the Service Mode program. A special thanks to Rosario Lorente Balanza for her help with the Akari data. We do appreciate the big role the anonymous referee has played in this paper. Although we did not always agree, we thank her/him for the significant contribution. We also thank Almudena Alonso-Herrero for her help with the MIPS photometry. This research has been funded by the Spanish grants AYA 2014-55840-P, and AYA2014-57369-C3-3-P, ESP2015-65712-C5-1-R, and ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R. AP and MTR acknowledge financial support from UNAM-DGAPA-PAPIIT IA102815 grant, México, and from CATA (PB06) CONICYT, Chile, respectively. AB was financed by proyecto Fondecyt Iniciación 11140572 and the Millennium Science Initiative (Chilean Ministry of Economy), through Núcleo Milenio de Formación Planetaria. It makes use of VOSA, developed under the Spanish Virtual Observatory project supported from the Spanish MICINN through grant AyA2008-02156, and of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. This publication makes use of data products from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The paper was finished during a stay at ALMA and ESO headquarters in Santiago de Chile by DB and NH, which were supported by ALMA & ESO and by the BBVA foundation, respectively, and another at Universidad de Valparaiso by DB, supported by proyect Proyecto Fondecyt de Iniciación 11140572 (Chile).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA 2014-55840-P
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2014-57369-C3-3-P
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)ESP2015-65712-C5-1-R
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)ESP2017-87676-C5-1-R
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)IA102815
Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (FONDECYT)11140572
Chilean Ministry of EconomyUNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCINN)AYA2008-02156
Subject Keywords:binaries: close – brown dwarfs – stars: pre-main sequence – stars: protostars – open clusters and associations: general – open clusters and associations: individual: Barnard 30 dark cloud
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180509-111634586
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Official Citation:Early phases in the stellar and substellar formation and evolution - Infrared and submillimeter data in the Barnard 30 dark cloud D. Barrado, I. de Gregorio Monsalvo, N. Huélamo, M. Morales-Calderón, A. Bayo, A. Palau, M. T. Ruiz, P. Rivière-Marichalar, H. Bouy, Ó. Morata, J. R. Stauffer, C. Eiroa and A. Noriega-Crespo A&A, 612 (2018) A79 DOI:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86315
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:09 May 2018 20:51
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:37

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