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The origin of ultra diffuse galaxies: stellar feedback and quenching

Chan, T. K. and Kereš, D. and Wetzel, A. and Hopkins, P. F. and Faucher-Giguère, C.-A. and El-Badry, K. and Garrison-Kimmel, S. and Boylan-Kolchin, M. (2018) The origin of ultra diffuse galaxies: stellar feedback and quenching. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 478 (1). pp. 906-925. ISSN 0035-8711. PMCID PMC6295926. doi:10.1093/mnras/sty1153.

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We test if the cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated galaxies from the FIRE project reproduce the properties of ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs). We show that outflows that dynamically heat galactic stars, together with a passively aging stellar population after imposed quenching, naturally reproduce the observed population of red UDGs, without the need for high spin halos, or dynamical influence from their host cluster. We reproduce the range of surface brightness, radius and absolute magnitude of the observed red UDGs by quenching simulated galaxies at a range of different times. They represent a mostly uniform population of dark matter-dominated dwarf galaxies with M* ∼ 10^8 M⊙, low metallicity and a broad range of ages; the more massive the UDGs, the older they are. The most massive red UDG in our sample (M* ∼ 3 × 10^8M⊙) requires quenching at z ∼ 3 when its halo reached M_h ∼ 10^(11) M⊙. Our simulated UDGs form with normal stellar-to-halo ratios and match the central enclosed masses and the velocity dispersions of the observed UDGs. Enclosed masses remain largely fixed across a broad range of quenching times because the central regions of their dark matter halos complete their growth early. If our simulated dwarfs are not quenched, they evolve into bluer low-surface brightness galaxies with M/L similar to observed field dwarfs. While our simulation sample covers a limited range of formation histories and halo masses, we predict that UDG is a common, and perhaps even dominant, galaxy type around M* ∼ 10^8 M⊙, both in the field and in clusters.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription CentralArticle Paper
Chan, T. K.0000-0003-2544-054X
Kereš, D.0000-0002-1666-7067
Wetzel, A.0000-0003-0603-8942
Hopkins, P. F.0000-0003-3729-1684
Faucher-Giguère, C.-A.0000-0002-4900-6628
El-Badry, K.0000-0002-6871-1752
Garrison-Kimmel, S.0000-0002-4655-8128
Boylan-Kolchin, M.0000-0002-9604-343X
Additional Information:© 2018 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Accepted 2018 May 1. Received 2018 March 21; in original form 2017 November 12. Published: 04 May 2018. We thank Aaron Romanowsky, Arianna Di Cintio, Timothy Carleton, and Viraj Pandya for helpful discussions. TKC was supported by NSF grant AST-1412153. DK was supported by NSF grants AST-1412153 and AST-1715101 and the Cottrell Scholar Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. AW was supported by a Caltech-Carnegie Fellowship, in part through the Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics at Caltech, and by NASA through grants HST-GO-14734 and HST-AR-15057 from STScI. Support for PFH was provided by an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, NASA ATP Grant NNX14AH35G, and NSF Collaborative Research Grant #1411920 and CAREER grant #1455342. CAFG was supported by NSF through grants AST-1412836, AST-1517491, AST-1715216, and CAREER award AST-1652522, and by NASA through grant NNX15AB22G. KE was supported by a Berkeley graduate fellowship, a Hellman award for graduate study, and an NSF graduate research fellowship. Support for SGK was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF5-160136 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060. MBK acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-1517226 and from NASA grants NNX17AG29G and HST-AR-13888, HST-AR-13896, and HST-AR-14282 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The simulation presented here used computational resources granted by the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant no. OCI-1053575, specifically allocation TG-AST120025.
Group:TAPIR, Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Caltech-Carnegie FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
Caltech Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and PhysicsUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
University of California, BerkeleyUNSPECIFIED
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipUNSPECIFIED
NASA Einstein FellowshipPF5-160136
Subject Keywords:galaxies: evolution — galaxies: halos — galaxies: kinematics and dynamics — galaxies: structure — dark matter
Issue or Number:1
PubMed Central ID:PMC6295926
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180517-101404866
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:T K Chan, D Kereš, A Wetzel, P F Hopkins, C-A Faucher-Giguère, K El-Badry, S Garrison-Kimmel, M Boylan-Kolchin; The origin of ultra diffuse galaxies: stellar feedback and quenching, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 478, Issue 1, 21 July 2018, Pages 906–925,
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86439
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:18 May 2018 16:57
Last Modified:10 Mar 2022 17:19

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