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Homogeneous Analysis of the Dust Morphology of Transition Disks Observed with ALMA: Investigating Dust Trapping and the Origin of the Cavities

Pinilla, P. and Tazzari, M. and Pascucci, I. and Youdin, A. N. and Garufi, A. and Manara, C. F. and Testi, L. and van der Plas, G. and Barenfeld, S. A. and Canovas, H. and Cox, E. G. and Hendler, N. P. and Pérez, L. M. and van der Marel, N. (2018) Homogeneous Analysis of the Dust Morphology of Transition Disks Observed with ALMA: Investigating Dust Trapping and the Origin of the Cavities. Astrophysical Journal, 859 (1). Art. No. 32. ISSN 1538-4357.

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We analyze the dust morphology of 29 transition disks (TDs) observed with Atacama Large (sub-)Millimeter Array (ALMA) at (sub-)millimeter emission. We perform the analysis in the visibility plane to characterize the total flux, cavity size, and shape of the ring-like structure. First, we found that the M_(dust)–M⋆ relation is much flatter for TDs than the observed trends from samples of class II sources in different star-forming regions. This relation demonstrates that cavities open in high (dust) mass disks, independent of the stellar mass. The flatness of this relation contradicts the idea that TDs are a more evolved set of disks. Two potential reasons (not mutually exclusive) may explain this flat relation: the emission is optically thick or/and millimeter-sized particles are trapped in a pressure bump. Second, we discuss our results of the cavity size and ring width in the context of different physical processes for cavity formation. Photoevaporation is an unlikely leading mechanism for the origin of the cavity of any of the targets in the sample. Embedded giant planets or dead zones remain as potential explanations. Although both models predict correlations between the cavity size and the ring shape for different stellar and disk properties, we demonstrate that with the current resolution of the observations, it is difficult to obtain these correlations. Future observations with higher angular resolution observations of TDs with ALMA will help discern between different potential origins of cavities in TDs.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Pinilla, P.0000-0001-8764-1780
Pascucci, I.0000-0001-7962-1683
Manara, C. F.0000-0003-3562-262X
Testi, L.0000-0003-1859-3070
van der Plas, G.0000-0001-5688-187X
Barenfeld, S. A.0000-0001-5222-6851
Canovas, H.0000-0001-7668-8022
Cox, E. G.0000-0002-5216-8062
Hendler, N. P.0000-0002-3164-0428
Pérez, L. M.0000-0002-1199-9564
van der Marel, N.0000-0003-2458-9756
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 February 8; revised 2018 April 5; accepted 2018 April 17; published 2018 May 21. The authors are very thankful to A. Natta for all the discussions about the results of this paper. P.P. acknowledges support by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant HST-HF2-51380.001-A, awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555. M.T. has been supported by the DISCSIM project, grant agreement 341137 funded by the European Research Council under ERC-2013-ADG. M.T., C.F.M., and L.T. acknowledge support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation)—Ref no. FOR 2634/1. I.P. and N.H. acknowledge support from an NSF Astronomy & Astrophysics Research Grant (ID: 1515392). C.F.M. acknowledges support through an ESO Fellowship. G.vdP. acknowledges funding from the ANR of France under contract number ANR-16-CE31-0013. S.A.B. acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under grant No. DGE1144469 and from NSF grant No. AST-1140063. In addition, an allocation of computer time from the UA Research Computing High Performance Computing (HPC) at the University of Arizona to perform the simulations presented in this paper is gratefully acknowledged. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA #2011.0.00724.S, 2011.1.00863.S, 2011.0.00966.S, 2012.1.00158.S, 2012.1.00182.S, 2013.1.00091.S, 2013.1.00157.S, 2013.1.00220.S, 2013.1.00395.S, 2013.1.00437.S, 2013.1.00498.S, 2013.1.00658.S, 2013.1.00663.S, 2013.1.01020S, and 2015.1.00934.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work has made use of data from the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Gaia (, processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC, Funding for the DPAC has been provided by national institutions—in particular, the institutions participating in the Gaia Multilateral Agreement. Software: CASA (McMullin et al. 2007), GALARIO (Tazzari et al. 2018), emcee (Foreman-Mackey et al. 2013).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NASA Hubble FellowshipHST-HF2-51380.001-A
NASANAS 5-26555
European Research Council (ERC)341137
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)FOR 2634/1
European Southern Observatory (ESO)UNSPECIFIED
Agence Nationale pour la Recherche (ANR)ANR-16-CE31-0013
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Gaia Multilateral AgreementUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:accretion, accretion disks – circumstellar matter – planets and satellites: formation – protoplanetary disks
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180522-111524573
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:P. Pinilla et al 2018 ApJ 859 32
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86546
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:22 May 2018 18:34
Last Modified:22 May 2018 18:34

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