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Variability of Red Supergiants in M31 from the Palomar Transient Factory

Soraisam, Monika D. and Bildsten, Lars and Drout, Maria R. and Bauer, Evan B. and Gilfanov, Marat and Kupfer, Thomas and Laher, Russ R. and Masci, Frank and Prince, Thomas A. and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Matheson, Thomas and Saha, Abhijit (2018) Variability of Red Supergiants in M31 from the Palomar Transient Factory. Astrophysical Journal, 859 (1). Art. No. 73. ISSN 1538-4357.

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Most massive stars end their lives as red supergiants (RSGs), a short-lived evolutionary phase when they are known to pulsate with varying amplitudes. The RSG period–luminosity (PL) relation has been measured in the Milky Way, the Magellanic Clouds and M33 for about 120 stars in total. Using over 1500 epochs of R-band monitoring from the Palomar Transient Factory survey over a five-year period, we study the variability of 255 spectroscopically cataloged RSGs in M31. We find that all RGSs brighter than M_K ≈ −10 mag (log(L/L⊙) > 4.8) are variable at Δm_R > 0.05 mag. Our period analysis finds 63 with significant pulsation periods. Using the periods found and the known values of M K for these stars, we derive the RSG PL relation in M31 and show that it is consistent with those derived earlier in other galaxies of different metallicities. We also detect, for the first time, a sequence of likely first-overtone pulsations. Comparison to stellar evolution models from MESA confirms the first-overtone hypothesis and indicates that the variable stars in this sample have 12 M⊙ < M < 24 M⊙. As these RSGs are the immediate progenitors to Type II-P core-collapse supernovae (SNe), we also explore the implication of their variability in the initial-mass estimates for SN progenitors based on archival images of the progenitors. We find that this effect is small compared to the present measurement errors.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Drout, Maria R.0000-0001-7081-0082
Bauer, Evan B.0000-0002-4791-6724
Kupfer, Thomas0000-0002-6540-1484
Laher, Russ R.0000-0003-2451-5482
Masci, Frank0000-0002-8532-9395
Prince, Thomas A.0000-0002-8850-3627
Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.0000-0001-5390-8563
Matheson, Thomas0000-0001-6685-0479
Saha, Abhijit0000-0002-6839-4881
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 January 15; revised 2018 March 27; accepted 2018 April 2; published 2018 May 24. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through grants PHY 11-25915, PHY 17-148958, and ACI 16-63688, and funded in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF5076. M.S. is grateful to Niels Oppermann for the detailed discussions on statistical approaches and methods of proper signal reconstruction. M.S. also thanks Mathew Graham and Ashish Mahabal for helpful discussions on the period-finding algorithms, and Matteo Cantiello for the helpful suggestions and comments on the manuscript. E.B. thanks Sang-Hyun Chun for providing MESA inlists necessary to reproduce their RSG models, and Matteo Cantiello for discussion of RSG evolution in MESA. PyFITS is a product of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA for NASA. Support for this work was provided to M.R.D. by NASA through Hubble Fellowship grant NSG-HF2-51373 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS5-26555. M.R.D. acknowledges support from the Dunlap Institute at the University of Toronto. M.G. acknowledges the hospitality of the Kazan Federal University (KFU) and support by the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of KFU. Software: numpy (van der Walt et al. 2011), scipy (Jones et al. 2001), astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013), pyfits, pandas (McKinney 2010), mpi4py (Dalcín et al. 2005), matplotlib (Hunter 2007), DAOPHOT (Stetson 1987), DAOGROW (Stetson 1990), NIFTy (Selig et al. 2013).
Group:Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), Palomar Transient Factory, Astronomy Department
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSFPHY 11-25915
NSFPHY 17-148958
NSFACI 16-63688
Gordon and Betty Moore FoundationGBMF5076
NASA Hubble FellowshipNSG-HF2-51373
Dunlap InstituteUNSPECIFIED
Russian Government Program of Competitive GrowthUNSPECIFIED
Kazan Federal UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: groups: individual (M31) – stars: massive – stars: oscillations – supergiants – surveys
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180524-105736998
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Monika D. Soraisam et al 2018 ApJ 859 73
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86590
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:24 May 2018 18:21
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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