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The Emission and Distribution of Dust of the Torus of NGC 1068

Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique and Fuller, Lindsay and Alonso-Herrero, Almudena and Efstathiou, Andreas and Ichikawa, Kohei and Levenson, Nancy A. and Packham, Christopher and Radomski, James and Ramos Almeida, Cristina and Benford, Dominic J. and Berthoud, Marc and Hamilton, Ryan and Harper, Doyal and Kovávcs, Attila and Santos, Fábio P. and Staguhn, J. and Herter, Terry (2018) The Emission and Distribution of Dust of the Torus of NGC 1068. Astrophysical Journal, 859 (2). Art. No. 99. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabd7b.

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We present observations of NGC 1068 covering the 19.7–53.0 μm wavelength range using FORCAST and HAWC+ on board SOFIA. Using these observations, high-angular-resolution infrared (IR) and submillimeter observations, we find an observational turnover of the torus emission in the 30–40 μm wavelength range with a characteristic temperature of 70–100 K. This component is clearly different from the diffuse extended emission in the narrow line and star formation regions at 10–100 μm within the central 700 pc. We compute 2.2–432 μm 2D images using the best inferred CLUMPY torus model based on several nuclear spectral energy distribution (SED) coverages. We find that when 1–20 μm SED is used, the inferred result gives a small torus size (<4 pc radius) and a steep radial dust distribution. The computed torus using the 1–432 μm SED provides comparable torus sizes, 5.1^(+0.4)_(-0.4) pc radius, and morphology to the recently resolved 432 μm Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations. This result indicates that the 1–20 μm wavelength range is not able to probe the full extent of the torus. The characterization of the turnover emission of the torus using the 30–60 μm wavelength range is sensitive to the detection of cold dust in the torus. The morphology of the dust emission in our 2D image at 432 μm is spatially coincident with the cloud distribution, while the morphology of the emission in the 1–20 μm wavelength range shows an elongated morphology perpendicular to the cloud distribution. We find that our 2D CLUMPY torus image at 12 μm can produce comparable results to those observed using IR interferometry.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique0000-0001-5357-6538
Alonso-Herrero, Almudena0000-0001-6794-2519
Efstathiou, Andreas0000-0002-2612-4840
Ichikawa, Kohei0000-0002-4377-903X
Levenson, Nancy A.0000-0003-4209-639X
Packham, Christopher0000-0001-7827-5758
Ramos Almeida, Cristina0000-0001-8353-649X
Benford, Dominic J.0000-0002-9884-4206
Hamilton, Ryan0000-0001-6350-2209
Santos, Fábio P.0000-0002-9650-3619
Staguhn, J.0000-0002-8437-0433
Herter, Terry0000-0002-3856-8385
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2017 November 27; revised 2018 March 20; accepted 2018 April 9; published 2018 May 29. Based on observations made with the NASA/DLR Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Financial support for this work was provided by NASA through awards #02_0035 and #04_0048 issued by USRA. E.L.-R. acknowledges support from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) through award PE17783 and the National Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) at Mitaka and the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Office at NAOJ-Mitaka for providing a space to work and great collaborations during the short stay at Japan. A.A.-H. acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant AYA2015-64346-C2-1-P, which is party funded by the FEDER program. C.R.A. acknowledges the Ramón y Cajal Program of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through project RYC-2014-15779 and the Spanish Plan Nacional de Astronomía y Astrofisíca under grant AYA2016-76682-C3-2-P. Facilities: SOFIA(FORCAST - , HAWC+) - . Software: astropy (Astropy Collaboration et al. 2013).
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)50 OK 0901
Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)PE17783
National Observatory of Japan (NAOJ)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2015-64346-C2-1-P
Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)RYC-2014-15779
Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad (MINECO)AYA2016-76682-C3-2-P
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active – galaxies: nuclei – galaxies: Seyfert – infrared: galaxies
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180529-095610998
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Official Citation:Enrique Lopez-Rodriguez et al 2018 ApJ 859 99
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86653
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 May 2018 17:32
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:40

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