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Inner Super-Earths, Outer Gas Giants: How Pebble Isolation and Migration Feedback Keep Jupiters Cold

Fung, Jeffrey and Lee, Eve J. (2018) Inner Super-Earths, Outer Gas Giants: How Pebble Isolation and Migration Feedback Keep Jupiters Cold. Astrophysical Journal, 859 (2). Art. No. 126. ISSN 1538-4357. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabaf7.

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The majority of gas giants (planets of masses ≳10^2 M⊕) are found to reside at distances beyond ~1 au from their host stars. Within 1 au, the planetary population is dominated by super-Earths of 2–20 M⊕. We show that this dichotomy between inner super-Earths and outer gas giants can be naturally explained should they form in nearly inviscid disks. In laminar disks, a planet can more easily repel disk gas away from its orbit. The feedback torque from the pile-up of gas inside the planet's orbit slows down and eventually halts migration. A pressure bump outside the planet's orbit traps pebbles and solids, starving the core. Gas giants are born cold and stay cold: more massive cores are preferentially formed at larger distances, and they barely migrate under disk feedback. We demonstrate this using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of disk–planet interaction lasting up to 105 years: we track planet migration and pebble accretion until both come to an end by disk feedback. Whether cores undergo runaway gas accretion to become gas giants or not is determined by computing one-dimensional gas accretion models. Our simulations show that in an inviscid minimum mass solar nebula, gas giants do not form inside ~0.5 au, nor can they migrate there while the disk is present. We also explore the dependence on disk mass and find that gas giants form further out in less massive disks.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription Paper
Fung, Jeffrey0000-0002-7455-6242
Lee, Eve J.0000-0002-1228-9820
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 January 17; revised 2018 March 9; accepted 2018 March 31; published 2018 May 30. We thank Eugene Chiang, Ruobing Dong, Paul Duffell, Anders Johansen, Heather Knutson, Michiel Lambrechts, Renu Malhotra, and Chris Ormel for helpful discussions. An anonymous referee provided an encouraging and helpful report. This work was performed under contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) funded by NASA through the Sagan Fellowship Program executed by the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute. E.J.L. acknowledges support from a Sherman Fairchild Fellowship at Caltech.
Group:TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Sherman Fairchild FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:accretion, accretion disks – methods: numerical – planet–disk interactions – planets and satellites: formation – protoplanetary disks
Issue or Number:2
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180530-124021103
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jeffrey Fung and Eve J. Lee 2018 ApJ 859 126
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86716
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:30 May 2018 20:46
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:41

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