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A High Capacity Calcium Primary Cell Based on the Ca–S System

See, Kimberly A. and Gerbec, Jeffrey A. and Jun, Young-Si and Wudl, Fred and Stucky, Galen D. and Seshadri, Ram (2013) A High Capacity Calcium Primary Cell Based on the Ca–S System. Advanced Energy Materials, 3 (8). pp. 1056-1061. ISSN 1614-6832. doi:10.1002/aenm.201300160.

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Conversion reaction cells afford the ability to explore new energy storage paradigms that transcend the dogma of small, low‐charge cations essential to intercalative processes. Here we report the use of earth‐abundant and green calcium and sulfur in unprecedented conversion reaction Ca–S primary cells. Using S‐infiltrated mesoporous carbon (abbreviated S@meso‐C) cathodes, we achieve discharge capacities as high as 600 mAh g^(−1) (S basis) within the geometry Ca|Ca(ClO_4)_2/CH_3CN|S@meso‐C, at a discharge rate of C/3.5. The electrolyte system in the Ca–S battery is of paramount importance as the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formed on the Ca anode limits the capacity and stability of the cell. We determine that 0.5 M Ca(ClO_4)_2 in CH_3CN forms an SEI that advantageously breaks down under anodic bias to allow oxidation of the anode. This same SEI, however, exhibits high impedance which increases over time at open circuit limiting the shelf life of the cell.

Item Type:Article
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See, Kimberly A.0000-0002-0133-9693
Additional Information:© 2013 WILEY‐VCH. Received: February 12, 2013. Published online: April 5, 2013. We thank Dr. Makoto Ue and Dr. Tomohiro Kawai of Mitsubishi Chemical for helpful discussions on electrochemical methods. Fellowship support to KAS from the ConvEne IGERT Program of the National Science Foundation (DGE 0801627) is gratefully acknowledged. This research made extensive use of the shared experimental facilities of the Materials Research Laboratory, supported by the MRSEC Program of the NSF (DMR 1121053). We also thank Dr. James Pavlovich for assistance with mass spectrometry.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-0801627
Subject Keywords: calcium battery; conversion reaction; high capacity; primary room temperature
Issue or Number:8
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180607-114657506
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Official Citation:See, K. A., Gerbec, J. A., Jun, Y. , Wudl, F. , Stucky, G. D. and Seshadri, R. (2013), A High Capacity Calcium Primary Cell Based on the Ca–S System. Adv. Energy Mater., 3: 1056-1061. doi:10.1002/aenm.201300160
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86884
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:07 Jun 2018 20:54
Last Modified:15 Nov 2021 20:43

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