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Vortex coronagraphs for the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission concept: theoretical performance and telescope requirements

Ruane, Garreth and Mawet, Dimitri and Mennesson, Bertrand and Jewell, Jeffrey and Shaklan, Stuart (2018) Vortex coronagraphs for the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission concept: theoretical performance and telescope requirements. Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems, 4 (1). Art. No. 015004. ISSN 2329-4124. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180608-102446089

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Abstract

The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission concept requires an optical coronagraph that provides deep starlight suppression over a broad spectral bandwidth, high throughput for point sources at small angular separation, and insensitivity to temporally varying, low-order aberrations. Vortex coronagraphs are a promising solution that performs optimally on off-axis, monolithic telescopes and may also be designed for segmented telescopes with minor losses in performance. We describe the key advantages of vortex coronagraphs on off-axis telescopes such as (1) unwanted diffraction due to aberrations is passively rejected in several low-order Zernike modes relaxing the wavefront stability requirements for imaging Earth-like planets from <10 to <100  pm rms, (2) stars with angular diameters <0.1 λ  /  D may be sufficiently suppressed, (3) the absolute planet throughput is <10  %  , even for unfavorable telescope architectures, and (4) broadband solutions (Δλ  /  λ  <  0.1) are readily available for both monolithic and segmented apertures. The latter make use of grayscale apodizers in an upstream pupil plane to provide suppression of diffracted light from amplitude discontinuities in the telescope pupil without inducing additional stroke on the deformable mirrors. We set wavefront stability requirements on the telescope, based on a stellar irradiance threshold set at an angular separation of 3  ±  0.5λ  /  D from the star, and discuss how some requirements may be relaxed by trading robustness to aberrations for planet throughput.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JATIS.4.1.015004DOIArticle
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Ruane, Garreth0000-0003-4769-1665
Mawet, Dimitri0000-0002-8895-4735
Mennesson, Bertrand0000-0003-4205-4800
Additional Information:© The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI. Paper 17093P received Nov. 14, 2017; accepted for publication Mar. 9, 2018; published online Mar. 28, 2018. We thank the HabEx Coronagraph Technology Working Group (CTWG) for useful discussions. G. Ruane is supported by an NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship under award AST-1602444. This work was supported by the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA.
Group:Astronomy Department
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics FellowshipAST-1602444
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:instrumentation; exoplanets; direct detection; coronagraphs
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180608-102446089
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180608-102446089
Official Citation:Garreth Ruane, Dimitri Mawet, Bertrand Mennesson, Jeffrey B. Jewell, Stuart B. Shaklan, "Vortex coronagraphs for the Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission concept: theoretical performance and telescope requirements," J. Astron. Telesc. Instrum. Syst. 4(1) 015004 (28 March 2018)
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86915
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:08 Jun 2018 18:28
Last Modified:07 Nov 2019 00:52

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