A Caltech Library Service

A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit

Abadie, J. and Marandi, A. and Abbott, B. P. and Abbott, R. and Adhikari, R. and Anderson, S. B. and Arai, K. and Araya, M. C. and Betzwieser, J. and Billingsley, G. and Black, E. and Blackburn, J. K. and Bork, R. and Brooks, A. F. and Cepeda, C. and Chalermsongsak, T. and Corsi, A. and Coyne, D. C. and Dannenberg, R. and Daudert, B. and Dergachev, V. and DeSalvo, R. and Driggers, J. C. and Ehrens, P. and Engel, R. and Etzel, T. and Fotopoulos, N. and Gustafson, E. K. and Hanna, C. and Harms, J. and Heefner, J. and Heptonstall, A. W. and Hodge, K. A. and Ivanov, A. and Jacobson, M. and Kalmus, P. and Kells, W. and King, P. J. and Kondrashov, V. and Korth, W. Z. and Kozak, D. and Lazzarini, A. and Lindquist, P. E. and Mageswaran, M. and Mailand, K. and Maros, E. and Marx, J. N. and McIntyre, G. and Meshkov, S. and Nash, T. and Ogin, G. H. and Osthelder, C. and Ajith, P. and Patel, P. and Pedraza, M. and Phelps, M. and Price, L. R. and Privitera, S. and Robertson, N. A. and Sannibale, V. and Santamaría, L. and Searle, A. C. and Seifert, F. and Sengupta, A. S. and Singer, A. and Singer, L. and Smith, M. R. and Stochino, A. and Taylor, R. and Torrie, C. I. and Vass, S. and Villar, A. E. and Wallace, L. and Ward, R. L. and Weinstein, A. J. and Whitcomb, S. E. and Willems, P. A. and Yamamoto, H. and Yeaton-Massey, D. and Zhang, L. and Zweizig, J. and Chen, Y. and Hong, T. and Luan, J. and Ott, C. D. and Somiya, K. and Thorne, K. S. and Vallisneri, M. and Wen, L. and Yang, H. and Drever, R. W. P. (2011) A gravitational wave observatory operating beyond the quantum shot-noise limit. Nature Physics, 7 (12). pp. 962-965. ISSN 1745-2473.

[img] PDF - Submitted Version
See Usage Policy.

[img] PDF - Supplemental Material
See Usage Policy.


Use this Persistent URL to link to this item:


Around the globe several observatories are seeking the first direct detection of gravitational waves (GWs). These waves are predicted by Einstein’s general theory of relativity and are generated, for example, by black-hole binary systems. Present GW detectors are Michelson-type kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance changes between mirrors suspended in vacuum. The sensitivity of these detectors at frequencies above several hundred hertz is limited by the vacuum (zero-point) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. A quantum technology—the injection of squeezed light—offers a solution to this problem. Here we demonstrate the squeezed-light enhancement of GEO 600, which will be the GW observatory operated by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in its search for GWs for the next 3–4 years. GEO 600 now operates with its best ever sensitivity, which proves the usefulness of quantum entanglement and the qualification of squeezed light as a key technology for future GW astronomy.

Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription ReadCube access Paper
Marandi, A.0000-0002-0470-0050
Adhikari, R.0000-0002-5731-5076
Arai, K.0000-0001-8916-8915
Billingsley, G.0000-0002-4141-2744
Blackburn, J. K.0000-0002-3838-2986
Brooks, A. F.0000-0003-4295-792X
Corsi, A.0000-0001-8104-3536
Coyne, D. C.0000-0002-6427-3222
Harms, J.0000-0002-7332-9806
Korth, W. Z.0000-0003-3527-1348
Kozak, D.0000-0003-3118-8950
Ajith, P.0000-0001-7519-2439
Weinstein, A. J.0000-0002-0928-6784
Zhang, L.0000-0002-0898-787X
Zweizig, J.0000-0002-1521-3397
Chen, Y.0000-0002-9730-9463
Ott, C. D.0000-0003-4993-2055
Vallisneri, M.0000-0002-4162-0033
Additional Information:© 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Received 11 May 2011; Accepted 03 August 2011; Published 11 September 2011. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the United States National Science Foundation for the construction and operation of the LIGO Laboratory and the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Max Planck Society, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the cluster of excellence QUEST (Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research), the BMBF, the Volkswagen Foundation, and the State of Niedersachsen/Germany for support of the construction and operation of the GEO 600 detector. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the support of the research by these agencies and by the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS), the SFB TR7, the FP7 project Q-ESSENCE, the Australian Research Council, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Italy, the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, the Conselleria d’Economia, Hisenda i Innovació of the Govern de les Illes Balears, the Royal Society, the Scottish Funding Council, the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Carnegie Trust, the Leverhulme Trust, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Research Corporation, and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Contributions: A list of authors and their affiliations appear in the Supplementary Information The activities of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) cover modelling astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, setting sensitivity requirements of observatories, designing, building and running observatories and researching new techniques to increase the sensitivity of these observatories, and performing searches for astrophysical signals contained in the data. The principal investigators of the advancement reported here are H.G. and R.S., being responsible for GEO 600 and for the squeezed-light laser during the past 3 years, in which this experiment was prepared and conducted, respectively. In this period a great number of the LSC members contributed directly to the success of this project. H.V. and H.G. supervised the integration of the squeezed-light laser into GEO 600. Together with A.K., they took and analysed the data shown. The initial manuscript was written by a team involving those mentioned above together with R.S. The manuscript went into a two-stage LSC-wide review process, which was organized and led by R.F., T.R.C., M.H., and D. Sigg. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript. The author declare no competing financial interests.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)UNSPECIFIED
Max Planck SocietyUNSPECIFIED
Centre for Quantum Engineering and Space-Time ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)UNSPECIFIED
Volkswagen FoundationUNSPECIFIED
State of Niedersachsen/GermanyUNSPECIFIED
International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy and AstrophysicsUNSPECIFIED
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)SFB TR7
European Research Council (ERC)Q-ESSENCE
Australian Research CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India)UNSPECIFIED
Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)UNSPECIFIED
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (MEC)UNSPECIFIED
Conselleria d’Economia, Hisenda i Innovació of the Govern de les Illes BalearsUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Funding CouncilUNSPECIFIED
Scottish Universities Physics AllianceUNSPECIFIED
Leverhulme TrustUNSPECIFIED
David and Lucile Packard FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Issue or Number:12
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180611-155020083
Persistent URL:
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:86981
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:12 Jun 2018 14:59
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

Repository Staff Only: item control page