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Hydrothermal evolution and isotope studies of the Baghu intrusion-related gold deposit, Semnan province, north-central Iran

Niroomand, Shojaeddin and Hassanzadeh, Jamshid and Tajeddin, Hossein Ali and Asadi, Sina (2018) Hydrothermal evolution and isotope studies of the Baghu intrusion-related gold deposit, Semnan province, north-central Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 95 . pp. 1028-1048. ISSN 0169-1368.

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The middle Eocene intrusion-related Baghu gold deposit is located in the Torud-Chahshirin segment of the Neotethyan magmatic arc of north-central Iran, Semnan province, Iran. The wallrocks at the deposit include a volcano-sedimentary sequence of calc-alkaline andesitic to dacitic lavas, marls, tuffs, and sandstones, which are intruded by epizonal granodioritic stocks and mafic dikes. Zircon U-Pb secondary ion mass spectrometry dating of a number of the granodiorite and micro-granite bodies yields an age of ca. 43.4 ± 1.3 Ma. Mineralization is in the form of subparallel sheeted quartz veins that are up to ∼1 km long within extensional faults. The ore-forming process included early potassic alteration with quartz + adularia + biotite + pyrite + chalcopyrite + native gold veins (average 0.25 g/t), and late phyllic alteration with quartz + sericite + pyrite + chalcopyrite + bornite + sphalerite + native gold veins (average 1.5 g/t). Supergene kaolinitization is also extensive in the Baghu area and has locally replaced up to 50 percent of the hypogene sulfide minerals. Turquoise is a diagnostic supergene phase, and locally, the iron oxy-hydroxides replacing the sulfides contain up to 57 g/t Au. The current hypogene and supergene resource estimate for the Baghu Au-Cu deposit is approximately 3.5 million tonnes averaging 1.17 g/t Au. Fluid inclusions in quartz from phyllic stage vein samples include monophase aqueous (I), monophase gas-rich (II), aqueous liquid + vapor (III), mixed aqueous-carbonic (IV), and multi-solid (V) inclusion types. The average homogenization temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusion assemblages from type III and IV inclusions range from 180 to 382 °C, with a mode at about 330 °C, and 4.2–5.4 wt% NaCl equiv., respectively. The type IV inclusions showed clathrate melting temperatures between +3.1 and +8.5 °C, indicating salinities of 2.8–11.5 wt% NaCl equiv. The type V inclusions also show a T_h range from 310 to 478 °C (average 440 °C) corresponding to high salinities of 33–45 wt% NaCl equiv. The trapping pressure of the fluid inclusions was estimated to be 94–132 MPa corresponding to depths of 2.5–3.9 km during late stage of mineralization. Sericite from the stage II veins yields an ^(40)Ar/^(39)Ar age of ca. 44 Ma, suggesting that the mineralization at Baghu overlap granite emplacement. The δ^(18)O of the ore-forming fluid also indicates no significant meteoric water input, despite gold deposition in a relatively shallow epizonal environment (δ^(18)O_(fluid) = +8.0 to +10.3 per mil). In addition, δ^(34)S values in stage II pyrite and chalcopyrite sulfide minerals range from +1.5 to +3.1 per mil, which is consistent with fluid saturation from a reduced magmatic source of sulfur. Historic gold production from occurrences hosted by the Torud-Chahshirin volcano-plutonic complex has been minor compared to that from orogenic gold deposits in Iran. However, identification of intrusion-related gold deposits in the complex indicates that more thorough exploration in the Eocene arc of north-central Iran could be promising.

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Niroomand, Shojaeddin0000-0001-8349-2896
Additional Information:© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Received 4 March 2017, Revised 2 January 2018, Accepted 15 January 2018, Available online 31 January 2018.
Subject Keywords:Intrusion-related gold systems; Fluid inclusions; Zircon U-Pb age; Ar-Ar dating; Stable isotopes; Baghu; Torud-Chahshirin Arc; Central Iran
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180622-095441352
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Official Citation:Shojaeddin Niroomand, Jamshid Hassanzadeh, Hossein Ali Tajeddin, Sina Asadi, Hydrothermal evolution and isotope studies of the Baghu intrusion-related gold deposit, Semnan province, north-central Iran, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 95, 2018, Pages 1028-1048, ISSN 0169-1368, (
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:87317
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:23 Jun 2018 15:36
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:19

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