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Luminous WISE-selected Obscured, Unobscured, and Red Quasars in Stripe 82

Glikman, E. and Lacy, M. and LaMassa, S. and Stern, D. and Djorgovski, S. G. and Graham, M. J. and Urrutia, T. and Lovdal, Larson and Crnogorcevic, M. and Daniels-Koch, H. and Hundal, Carol B. and Urry, M. and Gates, E. L. and Murray, S. (2018) Luminous WISE-selected Obscured, Unobscured, and Red Quasars in Stripe 82. Astrophysical Journal, 861 (1). Art. No. 37. ISSN 1538-4357. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180629-103946615

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Abstract

We present a spectroscopically complete sample of 147 infrared-color-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) down to a 22 μm flux limit of 20 mJy over the ~270 deg^2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 region. Most of these sources are in the QSO luminosity regime (L_(bol) ≳ 10^(12) L⊙) and are found out to z ≃ 3. We classify the AGNs into three types, finding 57 blue, unobscured Type-1 (broad-lined) sources; 69 obscured, Type-2 (narrow-lined) sources; and 21 moderately reddened Type-1 sources (broad-lined and E(B − V) > 0.25). We study a subset of this sample in X-rays and analyze their obscuration to find that our spectroscopic classifications are in broad agreement with low, moderate, and large amounts of absorption for Type-1, red Type-1, and Type-2 AGNs, respectively. We also investigate how their X-ray luminosities correlate with other known bolometric luminosity indicators such as [O III] line luminosity (L_([O III])) and infrared luminosity (L_(6μm)). While the X-ray correlation with L_([O III]) is consistent with previous findings, the most infrared-luminous sources appear to deviate from established relations such that they are either underluminous in X-rays or overluminous in the infrared. Finally, we examine the luminosity function evolution of our sample, and by AGN type, in combination with the complementary, infrared-selected, AGN sample of Lacy et al. (2013), spanning over two orders of magnitude in luminosity. We find that the two obscured populations evolve differently, with reddened Type-1 AGNs dominating the obscured AGN fraction (~30%) for L_(5μm) > 10^(45) erg s^(−1), while the fraction of Type-2 AGNs with L_(5μm) < 10^(45) erg s^(−1) rises sharply from 40% to 80% of the overall AGN population.


Item Type:Article
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aac5d8DOIArticle
https://arxiv.org/abs/1805.06961arXivDiscussion Paper
ORCID:
AuthorORCID
Glikman, E.0000-0003-0489-3750
Lacy, M.0000-0002-3032-1783
LaMassa, S.0000-0002-5907-3330
Stern, D.0000-0003-2686-9241
Djorgovski, S. G.0000-0002-0603-3087
Graham, M. J.0000-0002-3168-0139
Urrutia, T.0000-0001-6746-9936
Urry, M.0000-0002-0745-9792
Gates, E. L.0000-0002-3739-0423
Additional Information:© 2018 The American Astronomical Society. Received 2018 March 13; revised 2018 April 27; accepted 2018 May 12; published 2018 June 29. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We thank Peter Eisenhardt and the Hot DOG team for sharing the Lyα width of W2305−0039 prior to publication (P. Eisenhardt et al. 2018, in preparation). E.G. acknowledges the generous support of the Cottrell College Award through the Research Corporation for Science Advancement. We gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation Grant AST-1005024 to the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium REU Program. S.G.D. and M.J.G. acknowledge support from the NSF grants AST-1413600 and AST-1518308 and from the Ajax Foundation. We thank the staff at the IRTF, APO, Lick, Palomar, and Keck observatories, where some of the data presented here were obtained. The authors recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Maunakea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain. Funding for SDSS-III has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The SDSS-III website is http://www.sdss3.org/. SDSS-III is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS-III Collaboration, including the University of Arizona, the Brazilian Participation Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, University of Florida, the French Participation Group, the German Participation Group, Harvard University, the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Michigan State/Notre Dame/JINA Participation Group, Johns Hopkins University, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, New Mexico State University, New York University, Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, University of Portsmouth, Princeton University, the Spanish Participation Group, University of Tokyo, University of Utah, Vanderbilt University, University of Virginia, University of Washington, and Yale University. Funding for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, and the Participating Institutions. SDSS-IV acknowledges support and resources from the Center for High-Performance Computing at the University of Utah. The SDSS website is http://www.sdss.org. SDSS-IV is managed by the Astrophysical Research Consortium for the Participating Institutions of the SDSS Collaboration, including the Brazilian Participation Group, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Mellon University, the Chilean Participation Group, the French Participation Group, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Johns Hopkins University, Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU)/University of Tokyo, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Leibniz Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie (MPIA Heidelberg), Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik (MPA Garching), Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), National Astronomical Observatories of China, New Mexico State University, New York University, University of Notre Dame, Observatário Nacional/MCTI, The Ohio State University, Pennsylvania State University, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, United Kingdom Participation Group, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, University of Arizona, University of Colorado Boulder, University of Oxford, University of Portsmouth, University of Utah, University of Virginia, University of Washington, University of Wisconsin, Vanderbilt University, and Yale University. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED), which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This research has made use of the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. All WISE makes use of data from WISE, which is a joint project of the University of California, Los Angeles, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. TOPCAT (Taylor 2005) and the JavaScript Cosmology Calculator (Wright 2006) were used while preparing this paper. This research made use of the cross-match service provided by CDS, Strasbourg. Facilities: Shane (Kast) - , Palomar (TripleSpec) - , IRTF (SpeX) - , APO (TripleSpec) - , Keck (LRIS) - , IRSA - , WISE - , Sloan - .
Funders:
Funding AgencyGrant Number
Research CorporationUNSPECIFIED
NSFAST-1005024
NSFAST-1413600
NSFAST-1518308
Ajax FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Alfred P. Sloan FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Participating InstitutionsUNSPECIFIED
Department of Energy (DOE)UNSPECIFIED
NASA/JPL/CaltechUNSPECIFIED
W. M. Keck FoundationUNSPECIFIED
Subject Keywords:galaxies: active – galaxies: Seyfert – infrared: galaxies – quasars: general – surveys
Issue or Number:1
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180629-103946615
Persistent URL:https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180629-103946615
Official Citation:E. Glikman et al 2018 ApJ 861 37
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:87470
Collection:CaltechAUTHORS
Deposited By: Tony Diaz
Deposited On:29 Jun 2018 18:19
Last Modified:09 Mar 2020 13:18

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