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Detector modules and spectrometers for the TIME-Pilot [CII] intensity mapping experiment

Hunacek, Jonathon and Bock, James and Bradford, C. Matt and Bumble, Bruce and Chang, Tzu-Ching and Cheng, Yun-Ting and Cooray, Asantha and Crites, Abigail and Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven and Gong, Yan and Li, Chao-Te and O'Brient, Roger and Shirokoff, Erik and Shiu, Corwin and Sun, Jason and Staniszewski, Zachary and Uzgil, Bade and Zemcov, Michael (2016) Detector modules and spectrometers for the TIME-Pilot [CII] intensity mapping experiment. In: Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII. Proceedings of SPIE. No.9914. Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) , Bellingham, WA, Art. No. 99140L. ISBN 9781510602076.

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This proceeding presents the current TIME-Pilot instrument design and status with a focus on the close-packed modular detector arrays and spectrometers. Results of laboratory tests with prototype detectors and spectrometers are discussed. TIME-Pilot is a new mm-wavelength grating spectrometer array under development that will study the Epoch of Reionization (the period of time when the first stars and galaxies ionized the intergalactic medium) by mapping the fluctuations of the redshifted 157:7 μm emission line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]) from redshift z ~ 5:2 to 8:5. As a tracer of star formation, the [CII] power spectrum can provide information on the sources driving reionization and complements 21 cm data (which traces neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium). Intensity mapping provides a measure of the mean [CII] intensity without the need to resolve and detect faint sources individually. We plan to target a 1 degree by 0.35 arcminute field on the sky and a spectral range of 199-305 GHz, producing a spatial-spectral slab which is 140 Mpc by 0.9 Mpc on-end and 1230 Mpc in the redshift direction. With careful removal of intermediate-redshift CO sources, we anticipate a detection of the halo-halo clustering term in the [CII] power spectrum consistent with current models for star formation history in 240 hours on the JCMT. TIME-Pilot will use two stacks of 16 parallel-plate waveguide spectrometers (one stack per polarization) with a resolving power R ~ 100 and a spectral range of 183 to 326 GHz. The range is divided into 60 spectral channels, of which 16 at the band edges on each spectrometer serve as atmospheric monitors. The diffraction gratings are curved to produce a compact instrument, each focusing the diffracted light onto an output arc sampled by the 60 bolometers. The bolometers are built in buttable dies of 8 (low freqeuency) or 12 (high frequency) spectral channels by 8 spatial channels and are mated to the spectrometer stacks. Each detector consists of a gold micro-mesh absorber and a titanium transition edge sensor (TES). The detectors (1920 total) are designed to operate from a 250 mK base temperature in an existing cryostat with a photon-noise-dominated NEP of ~2 * 10^(-17) WHz^(-1-2). A set of flexible superconducting cables connect the detectors to a time-domain multiplexing SQUID readout system.

Item Type:Book Section
Related URLs:
URLURL TypeDescription
Hunacek, Jonathon0000-0001-7066-226X
Bock, James0000-0002-5710-5212
Bradford, C. Matt0000-0001-5261-7094
Cheng, Yun-Ting0000-0002-5437-0504
Cooray, Asantha0000-0002-3892-0190
Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven0000-0002-8504-7988
Uzgil, Bade0000-0001-8526-3464
Zemcov, Michael0000-0001-8253-1451
Additional Information:© 2016 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.
Funding AgencyGrant Number
NSF Graduate Research FellowshipDGE-1144469
Subject Keywords:reionization, intensity mapping, [CII], spectrometers, bolometers, transition edge sensors
Series Name:Proceedings of SPIE
Issue or Number:9914
Record Number:CaltechAUTHORS:20180726-160110323
Persistent URL:
Official Citation:Jonathon Hunacek, James Bock, C. Matt Bradford, Bruce Bumble, Tzu-Ching Chang, Yun-Ting Cheng, Asantha Cooray, Abigail Crites, Steven Hailey-Dunsheath, Yan Gong, Chao-Te Li, Roger O’Brient, Erik Shirokoff, Corwin Shiu, Jason Sun, Zachary Staniszewski, Bade Uzgil, Michael Zemcov, "Detector modules and spectrometers for the TIME-Pilot [CII] intensity mapping experiment", Proc. SPIE 9914, Millimeter, Submillimeter, and Far-Infrared Detectors and Instrumentation for Astronomy VIII, 99140L (19 July 2016); doi: 10.1117/12.2233762;
Usage Policy:No commercial reproduction, distribution, display or performance rights in this work are provided.
ID Code:88316
Deposited By: George Porter
Deposited On:26 Jul 2018 23:20
Last Modified:16 Nov 2021 00:25

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